توجه: محتویات این صفحه به صورت خودکار پردازش شده و مقاله‌های نویسندگانی با تشابه اسمی، همگی در بخش یکسان نمایش داده می‌شوند.
۱Effects of extract and essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. on TNBS–induced colitis in rats
نویسنده(ها): ، ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences، ششم،شماره۱(پياپي ۱۱)، ۲۰۱۱، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۱۰
Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Family Lamiaceae) popularly named rosemary, is a common household plant grown around the world, including Iran. Rosemary aerial parts are used as flavoring agent in foods, beverages, and cosmetic preparations and have various traditional uses in ethnomedicine including: analgesic, anti–inflammatory, anti–rheumatic, spasmolytic, carminative and choleretic applications. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of rosemary leaves hydroalcoholic extract (RHE) and essential oil (REO) in a well–defined model of experimental colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in rats. Different doses of RHE (100, 200 and 400 mg\kg) and REO (100, 200 and 400 ml\kg) were administered orally and intraperitoneally (100, 400 mg\kg and 100, 400 ml\kg) to male Wistar rats (n=6), 6 h after colitis induction and continued for 5 days by intracolonic instillation of 0.25 ml TNBS (80 mg\kg)\ethanol 50% v\v. Wet colon weight\length ratio was measured and tissue damage scores as well as indices of colitis were evaluated both macroscopically and histopathologically. RHE and REO at all test doses used were effective to reduce colon tissue lesions and colitis indices while greater doses were significantly effective to diminish histopathologic parameters irrespective to the route of administration. Administration of oral prednisolone, Asacol® (mesalazine microgranules) and parenteral hydrocortisone acetate were effective to reduce colon tissue injures as well. These data suggest that RHE and REO are both effective to possess anti–colitic activity, and reinforce the use of this plant as a remedy for inflammatory bowel diseases in traditional medicine.

۲Antinociceptive study of extracts of Platanus orientalis leaves in mice
نویسنده(ها): ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences، ششم،شماره۲(پياپي ۱۲)، ۲۰۱۱، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۶
Platanus orientalis L. (Platanaceae) is a medicinal tree used in Iranian folklore and traditional medicine as a pain and inflammation reliever. In this study, the polyphenolic and total extract of P. orientalis leaves were prepared and their antinociceptive effects were studied in mice using the acetic acid–induced writhing, formalin and light tail flick tests. Both hydroalcoholic and polyphenolic extracts of P. orientalis at a dose of 2 g\kg significantly (p0.05) reduced acetic acid–induced abdominal writhes. These extracts were also effective in suppression of formalin–induced pain behavior but they did not show any significant analgesia in light tail flick test. It is concluded that P. orientalis extracts have moderate analgesic effect and further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism and active constituents.

۳Anti–inflammatory and wound healing activities of Aloe littoralis in rats
نویسنده(ها): ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences، هفتم،شماره۲(پياپي ۱۴)، ۲۰۱۲، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۶
Aloe littoralis Baker (Asphodelaceae family) is a well known plant in southern parts of Iran. Because of its use in Iranian traditional medicine as a wound–healing agent, the present study was carried out to investigate anti–inflammatory and wound healing activities of this plant in Wistar rats. A. littoralis raw mucilaginous gel (ALRMG) and also two gel formulations prepared from the raw mucilaginous gel were used in this study. Gel formulations (12.5% and 100% v\w Aloe mucilage in a carbomer base) were applied topically (500 mg once daily) for 24 days in the thermal wound model. Also Aloe gel formulation (100%) and ALRMG (500 mg daily) were evaluated in incisional wound model. Carrageenan–induced paw edema was used to assess the anti–inflammatory effect of intraperitoneal injection of ALRMG. In burn wound, ALRMG and Aloe formulated gel (100%) showed significant (P0.05) healing effect. Topical application of ALMRG and Aloe formulated gel (100%) promoted healing rate of incisional wound. In carrageenan test, ALRMG (2.5 and 5 ml\Kg) revealed significant (P0.05) anti–inflammatory activity. Results showed that A. littoralis is a potential wound–healing and anti–inflammatory agent in rats. Further studies are needed to find out the mechanism of these biological effects and also the active constituents responsible for the effects.

۴Effects of the Persian Carum copticum fruit extracts on morphine withdrawal syndrome in mice
نویسنده(ها): ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences، هفتم،شماره۳(پياپي ۱۵)، ۲۰۱۲، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۶
Carum copticum from Apiaceae family has several biological effects including analgesic, anti–inflammatory, anxiolytic and antispasmodic activities. This study was designed to evaluate its effect on suppression of naloxone–induced morphine withdrawal signs. Hydroalcoholic and polyphenolic extracts were prepared according to the standard methods. Male mice (25–30 g) were made dependent by subcutaneous injection of increasing doses (30–90 mg\kg) of morphine. Withdrawal syndrome was elicited by naloxone (5 mg\kg, i.p.) and number of jumpings and also presence of ptosis, hyperventilation, piloerection, tremor and diarrhea were evaluated during a 30 min period started immediately after naloxone injection. The hydroalcoholic extract at doses of 1 and 2g\kg and the polyphenolic extract at doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 g\kg significantly (P0.05) inhibited jumpings. Both extracts inhibited tremor significantly (P0.01). Also the maximum applied dose of the extracts significantly (P0.05) reduced ptosis. These results clearly show that Carum copticum is effective in suppression of morphine withdrawal and further studies are needed to find out the responsible constituents and also the mechanism of their actions.

۵Effects of Carum carvi L. (Caraway) extract and essential oil on TNBS–induced colitis in rats
نویسنده(ها): ، ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences، هشتم،شماره۱(پياپي ۱۸)، ۲۰۱۳، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۸
Carum carvi L. (Apiaceae family) or caraway is a common household plant grown around the world including Iran. Caraway fruits are used as flavoring agent in foods and beverages, and have various traditional uses in ethnomedicine. Anti–inflammatory, spasmolytic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, carminative and immunomodulatory properties of caraway suggest that it might exert beneficial effects on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the effects of caraway hydroalcoholic extract (CHE) and its essential oil (CEO) in an immunological model of colitis in rats induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Different doses of CHE (100, 200, 400 mg\kg) and CEO (100, 200, 400 ml\kg) were administered orally (p.o.) and also doses of CHE (100, 400 mg\kg) and CEO (100, 400 ml\kg) were given intraperitoneally (i.p.) to the separate groups of male Wistar rats (n=6). Administration of the doses started 6 h after induction of colitis and continued daily for 5 consecutive days. Wet colon weight\length ratio was measured and tissue damage scores as well as indices of colitis were evaluated both macroscopically and histopathologically. CHE and CEO at all doses tested were effective in reducing colon tissue lesions and colitis indices and the efficacy was nearly the same when different doses of plant fractions were administered p.o. or i.p. Administration of prednisolone (p.o., 4 mg\kg), Asacol® (mesalazine microgranules, p.o., 100 mg\kg) and hydrocortisone acetate (i.p., 20 mg\kg) as references were effective in reducing colon tissue injures as well. These data suggest that caraway fractions are both effective and possess anti–colitic activity irrespective of the dose and route of administration.

۶Protective effects of the Morus alba L. leaf extracts on cisplatin–induced nephrotoxicity in rat
نویسنده(ها): ، ، ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences، هشتم،شماره۲(پياپي ۱۹)، ۲۰۱۳، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۷
Cisplatin (CP) as an important anti–tumor drug causes nephrotoxicity mainly by oxidative stress and renin–angiotensin system (RAS). Since flavonoids have high antioxidant activity and probable role in the inhibition of RAS, this study was designed to investigate the protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract and flavonoid fraction of Morus alba leaves on cisplatin–induced nephrotoxicity in rat. Extracts of Morus alba leaves were prepared and analyzed Phytochemically. Male rats (160–200 g) were used in this study (n=7–9). Normal group received 0.2 ml normal saline intraperitoneally (i.p.) once daily for ten days. Control animals received CP on the third day and saline in the remaining days. Other groups received either hydroalcoholic extract (200, 400 and 600 mg\kg, i.p.) or flavonoid fraction (50, 100 and 200 mg\kg, i.p.) for two days before CP administration and thereafter until tenth day. Serum concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) and nitric oxide were measured using standard methods. Also left kidneys were prepared for pathological study. The serum levels of BUN and Cr increased in animals received CP. Hydroalcoholic extract was ineffective in reversing these alterations but flavonoid fraction (50 and 100 mg\kg) significantly inhibited CP–induced increases of BUN and Cr. None of the treatments could affect serum concentration of nitric oxide. Flavonoid fraction could also prevent CP–induced pathological damage of the kidney. It seems that concurrent use of flavonoid fraction of Morus alba with CP can protect kidneys from CP–induced nephrotoxicity.

۷Cytotoxic effects of chloroform and hydroalcoholic extracts of aerial parts of Cuscuta chinensis and Cuscuta epithymum on Hela, HT29 and MDA–MB–468 tumor cells
نویسنده(ها): ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences، نهم،شماره۲(پياپي ۲۳)، ۲۰۱۴، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۸
Previous studies have indicated that some species of Cuscuta possess anticancer activity on various cell lines. Due to the lack of detailed researches on the cytotoxic effects of Cuscuta chinensis and Cuscuta epithymum, the aim of the present study was to evaluate cytotoxic effects of chloroform and hydroalcoholic extracts of these plants on the human breast carcinoma cell line (MDA–MB–468), human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line (HT29) and human uterine cervical carcinoma (Hela). Using maceration method, different extracts of aerial parts of C .chinensis and C. epithymum were prepared. Extraction was performed using chloroform and ethanol\water (70\30). Total phenolic contents of the extracts were determined according to the Folin–Ciocalteu method. Using MTT assay, the cytotoxic activity of the extracts against HT29, Hela and MDA–MB–468 tumor cells was evaluated. Extracts were considered cytotoxic when more than 50% reduction on cell survival was observed. The poly–phenolic content of the hydroalcoholic and chloroform extracts of C. chinensis and C. epithymum were 56.08 ± 4.11, 21.49 ± 2.00, 10.64 ± 0.86 and 4.81 ± 0.38, respectively. Our findings showed that the chloroform extracts of C. chinensis and C. epithyum significantly reduced the viability of Hela, HT–29 and MDA–MB–468 cells. Also, hydroalcoholic extracts of C. chinensis significantly decreased the viability of HT29, Hela and MDA–MB–468 cells. However, in the case of hydroalcoholic extracts of C. epithymum only significant decrease in the viability of MDA–MB–468 cells was observed (IC50 = 340 µg\ml). From these findings it can be concluded that C. chinensis and C. epithymum are good candidates for further study to find new possible cytotoxic agents.

۸Effect of Hordeum vulgare L. (Barley) on blood glucose levels of normal and STZ–induced diabetic rats
نویسنده(ها): ، ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences، نهم،شماره۳(پياپي ۲۴)، ۲۰۱۴، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۶
Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is the world’s fourth most important cereal crop after wheat, rice and maize. It is readily available with reasonable cost, and has the highest amount of dietary fiber among the cereals which may be beneficial for metabolic syndrome. In the present study, the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of barley seeds and a protein enriched fraction on blood glucose of normal and streptozotocin (STZ)–induced diabetic rats (STZ, 55 mg\kg, i.p) were investigated. Normal and diabetic male Wistar rats were treated daily with normal saline (1 ml), barley hydroalcoholic extract (BHE) (0.1, 0.25, 0.5 g\kg), protein enriched fraction (PEF) (0.1, 0.2, 0.4 g\kg) and glibenclamide (1 and 3 mg\kg), separately and the treatment was continued for 11 days. Blood samples were taken at 0, 1, 2, 3, 9 h in the first day and the days 5 (120 h) and 11 (264 h) for measuring the blood glucose levels (BGL). Our results indicated that none of the BHE and PEF, were effective to reduce BGL in normal or diabetic rats in acute phase of treatment (1st day). Nevertheless, BHE at doses of 0.25 and 0.5 g\kg, were only effective in detracting BGL of diabetic rats after 11 days of continued daily therapy. Moreover, BHE restored body weight of diabetic rats at the end of treatment. Glibenclamide had also hypoglycemic action in normal and diabetic rats after both acute and extended treatments. These findings suggest that barley seeds hydroalcoholic extract, has a role in diabetic control in long term consumption, and this effect might be at least due to its high fiber content. More detailed studies are warranted to demonstrate its mechanism of action and identify active components.

۹Anti–inflammatory effect of Prunus armeniaca L. (Apricot) extracts ameliorates TNBS–induced ulcerative colitis in rats
نویسنده(ها): ، ، ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences، نهم،شماره۴(پياپي ۲۵)، ۲۰۱۴، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۷
Prunus armeniaca L. (Apricot) is a tree cultivated in different parts of the world. Apricot kernel as a good dietary supplement has shown antioxidant, anti–inflammatory and other pharmacologic properties which suggest that it may be functional as an anticolitis agent. In this study we evaluated the effects of apricot kernel extract and oil on ulcerative colitis in rats. Rats were fasted for 36 h before the experiment. Colitis was induced by intra–rectal instillation of 50 mg\kg trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid in male Wistar rats. Treatments were started 6 h after colitis induction and continued every 24 h for 5 days. Apricot kernel extract (100, 200, 400 mg\kg p.o. and 100, 400 mg\kg i.p.) and apricot kernel extract\oil (100, 200, 400 mg\kg p.o.) were used as experimental treatments and prednisolone (4 mg\kg p.o. or i.p.) was used as reference drug. On the day 6, colon tissue was removed and macroscopic and pathologic parameters were evaluated. Ulcer index and total colitis index as representative of macroscopic and histologic parameters respectively showed ameliorating effects in experimental groups especially those treated by intraperitoneal administration route. Results also demonstrated that oil fraction was not able to potentiate the effects of extract. These data suggest that apricot kernel extracts (with or without oil) can be introduced for further mechanistic and clinical studies as a complementary medicine for inflammatory bowel disorders.

۱۰Effect of the hydroalcoholic extract and juice of Prunus divaricata fruit on blood glucose and serum lipids of normal and streptozotocin–induced diabetic rats
نویسنده(ها): ، ، ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences، نهم،شماره۶(پياپي ۲۷)، ۲۰۱۴، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۹
Prunus divaricata (Alloocheh) is a small tree cultivating in Iran, Middle East and central Asia. Prunus genus has many species with anti–oxidant, anti–hyperlipidemia and anti–hyperglycemia effects. In the present study the anti–diabetic and anti–hyperlipidemic effects of P. divaricata fruits were examined in normal and streptozotocin (STZ)–induced diabetic rats. Both groups, control and reference rats received normal saline and glibenclamide respectively. Test groups were treated with Prunus freeze dried juice (PFDJ, 200, 400, 800 mg\kg) and Prunus freeze dried extract (PFDE, 100, 200, 400 mg\kg) started at the 3rd day of the experiment and continued for 27 days thereafter. Weight changes of animals were checked periodically. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) level as well as serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were determined. Different treatments had no significant effect on body weight increments of normal rats, while in diabetic rats, PFDJ (800 mg\kg) and PFDE (400 mg\kg) opposed with weight loss. In acute phase of experiment (0–8 h of 3rd day), none of tested fractions were effective in reducing FBG and serum lipids of normal rats. During the sub–acute phase (13th and 30th days) however, the greatest test doses of PFDJ (800 mg\kg) and PFDE (400 mg\kg) induced hypoglycema. In diabetic groups, PFDJ and PFDE, at all test doses, could diminish FBG during sub–acute phase of the experiment. In addition, PFDJ and PFDE at most examined doses could diminish TG significantly and they were also effective on cholesterol derivatives in different magnitude.

۱۱The effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Ferula foetida stems on blood pressure and oxidative stress in dexamethasone–induced hypertensive rats
اطلاعات انتشار: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences، دهم،شماره۴(پياپي ۳۱)، ۲۰۱۵، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۹
Ferula foetida (Bunge) Regel. is one of the most widespread and important Ferula species with nutritional and medicinal applications. Some phytochemicals with helpful cardiovascular effects have been isolated from Ferula species. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of the stems of F. foetida in dexamethasone (Dex)–induced hypertension in rats. Hypertension was induced by subcutaneous injection of Dex (30 µg\kg) for 14 days. In a prevention study, rats received oral F. foetida extract (200, 400 and 800 mg\kg) for 4 days prior to Dex administration and during the test period (Days 1–18). In a treatment study, F. foetida extract was administered from day 8 to 14. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was evaluated using tail–cuff method. The thymus weight was measured as an indicator of glucocorticoid activity. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were measured in plasma samples. Dex–induced hypertensive rats showed significant increases in SBP and in plasma H2O2 and decreases in the body and thymus weights and in FRAP value (P0.001). Administration of F. foetida extract significantly prevented and reversed hypertension at all doses. It also increased plasma FRAP value (P0.001) but failed to decrease plasma H2O2 concentration. These results suggest antihypertensive and antioxidant effects of F. foetida stem extract in Dex–induced hypertension. More investigations are needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of antihypertensive effect of this traditional phytomedicine.

۱۲Anti–inflammatory effect of volatile oil and hydroalcoholic extract of Rosa damascena Mill. on acetic acid–induced colitis in rats
نویسنده(ها): ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences، دهم،شماره۶(پياپي ۳۳)، ۲۰۱۵، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۹
Rosa damascena is a small plant belonging to Rosaceae family which has been used for the treatment of some inflammatory diseases and digestive disorders in the Iranian folk medicine. This study was performed to investigate the effect of R. damascena hydroalcoholic extract (RDHE) and R. damascena volatile oil (RDVO) on ulcerative colitis induced by acetic acid in rats. Different doses of RDHE (250, 500, 1000 mg\kg) and RDVO (100, 200, 400 µl\kg) were given orally (p.o.) and doses of RDHE (125, 250, 500 mg\kg) were administrated intraperitoneally (i.p.) to the male Wistar rats (n=6) 2 h before induction of colitis which continued daily for 4 successive days. Prednisolone (4 mg\kg p.o.) and dexamethasone (1 mg\kg i.p.) were used in the reference groups. Weight\length ratios of wet colon were measured and the tissues were assessed macroscopically, histopathologically, and biochemically via measuring the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Oral RDHE at all doses examined, and the lowest dose of RDVO given p.o. or RDHE administered i.p. reduced all indices of colitis measured in different assays as well as the MPO activity. These results provide encouraging support for the use of hydroalcoholic extract of R. damascena in relieving alimentary inflammatory conditions and reinforce the use of this plant to develop new agents for treating ulcerative colitis.
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