توجه: محتویات این صفحه به صورت خودکار پردازش شده و مقاله‌های نویسندگانی با تشابه اسمی، همگی در بخش یکسان نمایش داده می‌شوند.
۱Finding the Most Optimal Material Properties and Analysis Method for Biomechanical Numerical Simulation of Head in Hydrocephalus Patients
اطلاعات انتشار: اولین کنفرانس بین المللی دستاوردهای نوین پژوهشی در مکانیک، مکاترونیک و بیومکانیک ، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۱۱
In the present study, the head Cine PC–MRI was done in a normal subject and 11 patients with hydrocephalus. Then the head point cloud was produced and the head 3D model of all subjects was built. All models were fluid–structure interaction (FSI) analyzed under two assumptions of linear elastic (assumption A) and linear viscoelastic (assumption B) of brain tissue. Following the validation of the CSF velocity data obtained experimentally and from numerical simulation, other results were extracted. Results showed that the error between CSF velocity, Reynolds number and stroke volume data obtained under assumptions A and B of patients are less than 4.2%, 4.4% and 0.3%, respectively. Hence, the assumption of linear elastic for brain tissue is a more optimal choice to analyze these parameters in head as it reduces the calculation time greatly. However, the error between CSF pressure data obtained under assumptions A and B is greater than 17% and therefore, it is necessary to use the assumption of linear viscoelastic for brain tissue for analysis of CSF pressure. By the way, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solution is an appropriate technique for analysis of diseases with a cause outside the ventricular system but it is necessary to use FSI solution for investigating diseases whose cause is inside the ventricular system as the displacement of fluid–solid interface is considerable<\div>

۲Sphenoid Sinus:Anatomic Variations and Their Importance in Trans–sphenoidSurgery
اطلاعات انتشار: International Clinical Neuroscience Journal، اول،شماره۱، ۲۰۱۴، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۴
Background: Over the past decades, instruments and techniques of the transsphenoidal approach have improved greatly. All of these procedures, whether microscopic or endoscopic, must pass through the sphenoid sinus to reach the lesions. The sphenoid sinus is surrounded by several vital anatomical structures. Knowing the details of the anatomy of the sphenoid sinus and the extent of pneumatization can guide the surgeon through difficult corners of this approach. Purpose: This work aimed to determine the incidence of the different anatomical variations of the sphenoid sinus in Iranian patients with pituitary adenomas as detected by preoperative MRI and CT scans. Methods: Preoperative CT scan and MRI of 64 adult patients with pituitary adenomas were retrospectively reviewed regarding degree of pneumatization and septation of the sphenoid sinus. Results: Regarding the degree of pneumatization, there were 34 cases with sellar type (59.4%), 10 patients with presellar type (15.6%), and 16 cases with conchal type (25%). Regarding degree of septation, no absence of septum observed in any of our cases. A single intersphenoid septum observed in 18 of cases (28.1%), and 46 of cases had more than one intersphenoid septum (71.9%). Also, one onodi cell was identified. Conclusion: Enrichment of the knowledge of the sphenoid sinus anatomic variation would aid in reducing complications. Surgeons must meticulously study the preoperative imaging to become familiar with the nuances and variations unique to each case and proceed accordingly to decrease the risk of complications.

۳Post Surgical Pseudomeningocele in a Patient with Cervical Neurinoma; a case report and review of the literature
اطلاعات انتشار: International Clinical Neuroscience Journal، اول،شماره۱، ۲۰۱۴، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۴
Our patient was a 43–year–old woman with a suboccipital headache and pain in the upper cervical region from 3 years ago with a progressive generalized weakness in the last 3 months. Neuroimaging study showed a dumbell shaped lesion with compression of the spinal cord in the cervical region that was identified as a neurinoma. The tumor had been completely removed by surgery but after the operation, site of surgery bulged and consequently the patient was reevaluated. The bulging was diagnosed as a pseudomeningocele that did not response to conservative management and was removed surgically. Possible causes for the development of post operative pseudomeningocele can be soft tissues and paravertebral muscles damage or high intradural pressures that cause leakage of cerebrospinal fluid from a very small dural defect. Shunt insertion should be reserved for patients with impaired cerebrospinal fluid absorption or those with a refractory fistula despite medical therapies and direct surgical repairs.

۴Cervical Neurinoma Encasing Vertebral Artery
اطلاعات انتشار: International Clinical Neuroscience Journal، اول،شماره۲، ۲۰۱۴، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۴
Our case is a 48–year old male with cervical pain with radiation to the upper limbs. Imaging showed a intradural tumor with extra dural component encasing the vertebral artery .thetumor to be a neurinomaand had been removed surgically .The post operation MRI showed that the tumor was completely removed and that the vertebral arterywas intact at theentire length.The goal of surgery of neurinoma is a total removal of the tumor,However if the vertebral artery is completely encasing by the tumor, it is advisable to remove the tumor to the level that the vertebral intactness is saved .

۵The Spine Vertebral Bodies 3D Modeling and its Biomechanical Advantages
اطلاعات انتشار: International Clinical Neuroscience Journal، دوم،شماره۱، ۲۰۱۵، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۳
To perform an accurate approach to the spine specially for fracture stabilization a 3D model of spine surgical region may improve this mechanism and it can help the surgeon to have a deeper glance to this scenario. The pre–op planning facility is another advantage of the patient spine specific model to take a chance of making guides to direct pedicle screws safely and increase the pathomechanics of volumes of interest stability factor parallel with its mobility restoration. There are some algorithms for making 3D–reconstruction from CT or MR data–set but the main goal of in–vivo component 3D making is right component extraction from its peripheral segments to achieve the best judgment especially about the surgical approach. Here is a cervical vertebral bodies segmentation and 3D–reconstruction of two cervical adjacent levels combined with the registration process that is shown the intervertebral degree regarding to range of motion percent.

۶Brain Tumors in Elderly
اطلاعات انتشار: International Clinical Neuroscience Journal، دوم،شماره۲، ۲۰۱۵، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۱۱
Brain tumors in elderly are increasing as the number of people, who comprise the older population, does.About half of the patients with brain tumors appear to be over 60 years of age.In this review article, Glioblastoma multiform, as the most common malignant tumor of the central nervous system in elderly is discussed in details of definition, prognosis, diagnosis, treatment and differential diagnosis. Other tumors such as meningioma, pituitary adenoma, CNS lymphoma and metastasis are also included to be reviewed. Treatment plans, either conservative or aggressive, classic or novel, approved or under investigation, are presented. Furthermore different attitudes of treatment in the past and recently are also argued. Conventional therapy, Surgery, Radiotherapy, chemotherapy radioimmunotherapy, hormonal therapy and some other novel methods of treatments are discussed in details for the glioma.Determining factors which may be associated to the patient''s response to each treatment planare also discussed. Finally, some age related issues are provided to be paid attention to consider an old patient with brain tumor, and planning an optimal treatment in order to make the best management decisions.Until recently, peoplewith brain tumors in elderly, were used to be treated in conservative plans and often were excluded of the clinical trials but now the number of patients who desire and receive more aggressive therapy for brain tumors is increasing.

۷Quantitative assessment of deep brain stimulation on tremor in multiple sclerosis disease
نویسنده(ها): ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: International Clinical Neuroscience Journal، دوم،شماره۳، ۲۰۱۵، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۴
Background and Purpose: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease that gives rise to a number of unpleasant symptoms that can be difficult to manage by conventional means. There are some aspects of MS–related disability which can be improved by using Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS); particularly movement disorders, such as tremor. The research aim is to study the effect of DBS on MS tremor with a quantitative approach. Methods: Raw tremor data was provided by the Surgical Center for Movement Disorders at the University of British Columbia, Canada. The hand tremor signal was collected on 8 MS subjects and 10 healthy individuals during finger–to–nose test (FNT) by using motion analysis system. Patients executed the FNT with DBS OFF and ON. Nonlinear and statistical features were extracted from tremor spectrum as tremor indexes. Tremor reduction by using DBS was determined by classifying mentioned features into three groups of healthy, DBS ON and DBS OFF. Results: Several dominant peaks were observed in power spectrum of the recorded signals which indicate MS tremor consists of several tremor subtypes due to different sites of demyelinating lesions affecting cerebellum and its output pathways. Results of frequency analysis revealed tremor spectrum dominant frequency in healthy group was significantly greater than for the patients with DBS ON and OFF (p0.05). Additionally, classification results demonstrated that tremor of 6 patients out of 8 decreased significantly when their DBS was ON.Conclusion: Overall, in 75% of patients with MS who suffered from tremor, thalamic DBS significantly reduced their tremor. In addition, power spectrum dominant frequency has high potential for a quantitative and objective measure of MS tremor.

۸Direct Carotid–Cavernous sinus Fistula Following Closed Head Injury
اطلاعات انتشار: International Clinical Neuroscience Journal، دوم،شماره۳، ۲۰۱۵، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۳
A case of direct carotid–cavernous sinus fistula (CCF) after closed head injury is presented. A 22–year–old male presented to the emergency department of Shohada Tajrish Hospital with the chief complaint of blurred vision and pulsatile retro–orbital headache. The patient had closed head injury due to car accident 2 month ago with lower limb fracture. After a 2–week symptom–free period, he developed scalp and right facial tingling, along with pulsatile retro–orbital headache and vision problems. His vital signs were within normal limits, but on primary evaluation the patient orbital and carotid bruits could be recognized. Computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) suggested the carotid–cavernous sinus fistula, which was confirmed by brain angiographic imaging findings. Carotid–cavernous sinus fistula is an uncommon condition that is usually caused by head trauma but can advance spontaneously in about one fourth of patients with CCF. The connection between the carotid artery and cavernous sinus leads to increased pressure in the cavernous sinus and compression of its contents, and finally advances the clinical symptoms and signs seen. Diagnosis is based on clinical evaluationand neuroimaging techniques. The target of management is to decrease the pressure within the cavernous sinus, which results in gradual recovery of symptoms.

۹A Survey on Cortical Bone Trajectory for Spinal Fusions
اطلاعات انتشار: International Clinical Neuroscience Journal، دوم،شماره۴، ۲۰۱۵، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۴
There have been a number of developments in screw design and implantation techniques over recent years, including proposal of an alternative trajectory entitled as cortical bone trajectory (CBT). Cortical bone trajectory has been investigated in recent medical treatments as an alternative for screw fixation aimed at increasing purchase of pedicle screws in higher density bone. CBT screw insertion follows a lateral path in the transverse plane and caudocephalad path in the sagittal plane. This technique has been advocated because it is reportedly less invasive, improves screw−bone purchase and reduces neurovascular injury. Furthermore CBT pedicle screw fixation provides stabilization to multilevel lumbar segment with low–grade spondylolisthesis comparable to the standard trajectory pedicle screw construct. However, these claims have not been supported by robust clinical evidence. Recent investigations focus on evaluations of CBT as a pioneer method.

۱۰Neurocysticercosis: manifestations, diagnosis and treatment
اطلاعات انتشار: International Clinical Neuroscience Journal، دوم،شماره۴، ۲۰۱۵، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۷
Neurocysticercosis, is the infection caused by the larval form of the tapeworm Taenia solium. It is considered as the most common parasitic disease of the central nervous system and the most common cause of acquired epilepsy. This has primarily been a disease that remains endemic in countries with poor economy , but because of increased migration neurocysticercosis is being diagnosed more frequently worldwide. During the past decades improved diagnostics, imaging, and treatment have led to more accurate diagnosis and improved prognosis for patients. This article is a review about the current data about neurocysticercosis, including recent diagnostics and treatment developments.

۱۱Peripheral Nerve Injury: A Review Article
اطلاعات انتشار: International Clinical Neuroscience Journal، سوم،شماره۱، ۲۰۱۶، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۶
Traumatic peripheral nerve injuries are among most important cause of physical disability among young adults. Most partial injuries and some complete injuries recover without operative intervention, with early return of function appearing to be the most significant prognostic factor in these cases. Return of function over time depends to a great extent on the underlying neuropathologic condition of the nerve. Although some nerve injuries recover spontaneously, in some cases surgery is the only therapeutic option for the improvement of neurological deficits or control of neuropathic pain. We aimed to review the classification and management of peripheral nerve injury, with emphasize on clinical aspect.

۱۲Air in Straight Sinus after Closed Head Injury Surgery
اطلاعات انتشار: International Clinical Neuroscience Journal، سوم،شماره۱، ۲۰۱۶، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۳
Air in the intracranial vascular compartment is rare and only few case reports are published in the literature. Without surgery or open head trauma, the origin of air bubbles in the venous sinus is still debated. We report an admitted patient in the emergency room one hour after a severe closed head injury, and in whom, the post–surgical cranial CT scan demonstrated feature of air embolism along the straight sinus. Mechanisms explaining how air reaches the venous compartment is discussed.

۱۳Numerical Simulation of the Cervical Spine in a Normal Subject and a Patient with Intervertebral Cage under Various Loadings and in Various Positions
اطلاعات انتشار: International Clinical Neuroscience Journal، سوم،شماره۲، ۲۰۱۶، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۷
Background: Cervical spine sustains most of thevertebral column injuries, among other injuries, the disc degeneration and damage that lead to replacement of the damaged disc with cage or artificial disc.Methods: The C4 to C6 vertebrae of a normal subject and a person with interbody fusion cage were 3d modelled and then analyzed using Finite element method. The results of maximum stress and strain in cervical spine of the normal subject and patient were compared in three positions: standing, lying with axial rotation of neck and standing with axial rotation of neck.Results: The maximum principal strain and stress in the patient are respectively 10.5% and 14.5% greater than those in normal subject in standing position, howeverin lying position when the head has axial rotation, the maximum principal strain and stress are in the normal subject 6.2% and 16.3% greater than those in patient, respectively. The difference between these results and the results of strain and stress in standing position when the head has axial rotation is very small. This outcome is due to smallness of the stress exerted on cervical spine as a result of the head weight (131–150 Pa).Conclusion: In contrary to the constraint between disc and vertebrae, there is no friction between cage and vertebrae and this leads to maximum stress transfer to the first vertebra above the cage in patient. However, the maximum stress is ultimately less in the patient with fusion cage than the normal subject. Generally, only the neck rotations are the cause of cervical spine injury in normal neck movements.

۱۴The Role of Steroid in Post Myelography Headache
اطلاعات انتشار: International Clinical Neuroscience Journal، سوم،شماره۲، ۲۰۱۶، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۴
Myelography is a diagnostic procedure to indicate spinal defects. After the inception of new means of spinal cord imaging, use of myelography has been limited. Since there are contraindications for other modalities in some patients, we have to use myelography. The most common complication of myelography is post myelography headache (PMH). Many methods have been proposed to alleviate the pain. In this clinical trial study we assess the role of steroid in PMH.
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