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۱Diffusion and Extension Integrated Pest Management for (IPM) Sustainable Agriculture systems in Iran
اطلاعات انتشار: سومین کنفرانس برنامه ریزی و مدیریت محیط زیست، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۱۳
Since chemical pesticides can pose serious threats to human health and the environment, sustainability, so reducing pesticide usage, application of integrated pest management (IPM) practices have emphasized to increase suppression of pest problems with minimum impact on environment, human health and access to sustainable agricultural development, (achieve environmental, economic and social sustainability). IPM applies a combination of practices including biological, chemical, and cultural that it enables farmers to reduce their reliance on pesticides while increasing crop production, food quality and safety and profitability. since 1990s the adoption of integrated pest management technologies in rice fields of north Iran close to the Caspian Sea, was started with accentuate the importance applying Trychograma bee in order to pests biological control, and now, by production field farmer school (as one of extension–participatory methods), these technologies are introducing to farmers. Farmers are important in the process of adoption and application of IPM technologies. Therefore, reducing pesticide usage and application of IPM practices, requires changing farmers perception and behaviors, improving farmers’ attitude, strengthening communication with farmers to extension experts, it is recommended that extension agents state clear advantages of IPM practices accompany with the empowerment of farmers and their participation in decision–making process by using delivery methods such as field demonstration and farmer field schools (FFS) are proper methods to achieve this purposes.<\div>

۲Impact of Organizational Learning on Market Orientation of Higher Education Agricultur e Deoartments
نویسنده(ها): ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: Iranian Economic Review، يازدهم،شماره۱۵، ۲۰۰۶، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۲۲
Traditionally, universities have sought to maintain or enhance their competitive position with activities chiefly directed at student recruitment, particularly through the use of aggressive promotional activities. With the tumult and dynamism in the present environment, university administrators cannot rely primarily on student recruitment efforts successfully. Rather, they will need to be proactive and innovative. They will need to adopt a strategic marketing approach and enfold it into their strategic management activities. And by becoming more market oriented, insightful academic administrators will likely engage in learning oriented of marketplace. The main objective of this research is to study the impact of organizational learning on market orientation of Agricultural Higher Education Departments. A questionnaire was used to collect information from respondents. In this study, a sample of 50 faculty members were selected, using "Proportional Random Sampling" method. Data for this study were collected through personal interviews, and Wood and Bhutan market orientation scale was used to specify the dimensions of a market–oriented organization. The data was analyzed using canonical correlation. The findings of the study revealed that market orientation scale provide a good measure of market orientation in this setting. Also, the results of analyses indicated a significant relationship between organizational learning and market orientation of Higher Education Agriculture Departments of Tehran University. In this regard, team working and system thinking as the elements of the organizational learning are more important. It is concluded that, departments and colleges with both orientations could be able to cover and respond to explicit and latent environmental forces through a combination of adaptive and generative learning which enable innovative and reactive marketplace behaviors .
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