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۱Optimization of Cu and Zn Removal from Wastewater Using pre–treated Oil Palm Frond (OPF) by Response Surface Methodology
اطلاعات انتشار: هفتمین کنگره بین المللی مهندسی عمران، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۹
An increase in the usage of heavy metals in various industrial processes results in increasing heavy metal wastes that need further treatment . To deserver removal from the effluent , Cu and Zn remain hazardous even at low concentration . the potential of oil palm frond (OPF) pre–treated with alkaline wash as a sorbent to remove Cu and Zn from aqueous solution was investigated in this study. 2g of OFB was treated for 300 min in a 250 ml 1.0M NaOH solution to improve its sorption ability. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on Three on Three – Variable Composite Face Centered Design was employed as an experimental design in order to evaluate the effect of initial Zn and Cu concentration (5–100 mg\l) , pH solution (2–9) and biomass loading (0.5–2g) on the sorption process under normal room temperature (25C) The solution pH, initial metal concentration and biomass loading were used as the main process variables , while the sorption performance was based on removal efficiency of two metals. Thecoefficient for determination, R2– for the removal was found to be 0.96 and 0.97 for Cu and Zn respectively . The initial concentration of 89 mg\l, biomass loading of 1.7g and initial pH of 4.5 were been found to be the optimum conditions for the maximum removal of Cu (89.75%) the optimum conditions for highest Zn removal were found to be initial concentration of 76 mg\l, biomass loading of 1.7 and initial pH of 5.5, to reach the Zn removal of 77.3%.<\div>

۲Transesterification of vegetable oils using ultrasonic–assisted heterogeneous process: A response surface methodology–based modeling and interactions between variables
اطلاعات انتشار: هفتمین کنگره ملی مهندسی شیمی، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۱۱
Intensification of biodiesel production process using low frequency ultrasonic irradiation (20 kHz,200 W) is attempted. Effects of five process variables in the ultrasonic–assisted and SrO–catalyzedtransesterification of vegetable oils i.e. ultrasonic pulse on (s) and pulse off (s) durations, reactiontime (min), power (%) and oil volume (ml) were investigated. Response surface technology was employed and a quadratic model was developed with 97 % of confidence level. The optimum conditions were found to be at an ultrasonic pulse on of 9 s, pulse off of 2 s, a reaction time of 30.7min, at a power of 130 W and an oil amount of 52 g. This model was tested with other vegetable oils i.e. palm oil, canola oil, sunflower oil and corn oil to demonstrate the applicability of this model. The model was found to be applicable for different types of oil with errors of less than 10%. SrO catalyst demonstrated minimum leaching while FFA content was mainly responsible for the different yield obtained with different oils.<\div>
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