توجه: محتویات این صفحه به صورت خودکار پردازش شده و مقالههای نویسندگانی با تشابه اسمی، همگی در بخش یکسان نمایش داده میشوند.
اطلاعات انتشار: Vol ۹, SEPTEMBER ۲۰۰۶ - Number ۲، سال ۰
تعداد صفحات: ۲۴
۲Cloze Test and Ctest Revisited The Effect of Genre Familiarity on Second Language Reading Test Performance
اطلاعات انتشار: Vol.۱۴ - No.۲ - September ۲۰۱۱، سال ۰
تعداد صفحات: ۳۲
اطلاعات انتشار: Vol. ۱, No. ۱ - ۲۰۱۲، سال ۰
تعداد صفحات: ۱۶
اطلاعات انتشار: Fall ۲۰۱۳، Volume, VoL ۴ - No ۳، سال ۰
تعداد صفحات: ۲۸
Having reached an interim accord in Geneva, two governments with a tortured political history must now work to sell it and the diplomatic strategy they have laid out to their own constituencies back home. In this paper, the role of the United States Congress in the process of developing American foreign policy in general and, in the current matter of Iran’s nuclear file in particular will be examined. To do so, it describes the history of the relationship between the White House and Congress and then examines the difficult task of the Obama administration to garner support for its strategy in Congress. It reviews the reservations voiced by many in Congress regarding the Geneva nuclear interim accord as well as their misgivings regarding a final agreement. As the matter at hand involves high stake politics in the Middle East, it may carry grave consequences for the status quo in the region. The possible ramifications and the way this effects the position of those in Congress will also be explored. Lastly, since lobby groups have historically had a major role in American foreign policy towards the Middle East, their extensively–discussed role in this case as well as challenges they face will also be touched upon. In general, this paper proposes to describe specifically the way the US policy towards Iran is being formulated and what role Congress plays in the process. Effort will be made to find out to what extent the domestic politics has an impact on the approach of Congress towards Iran and how Congress may be influenced by Middle East regional powers.
اطلاعات انتشار: Spring - Summer ۲۰۱۴، Volume۳ - Issue۲، سال ۰
تعداد صفحات: ۱۴
The present study aimed at investigating DIF sources on an EFL reading comprehension test. Accordingly, 2 DIF detection methods, logistic regression (LR) and item response theory (IRT), were used to flag emergent DIF of 203 (110 females & 93 males) Iranian EFL examinees’ performance on a reading comprehension test. Seven hypothetical DIF sources were examined in this regard: text familiarity, gender, topic\text interest, guessing, and the social variables of location, income, and educational status. Only LR, for gender and text familiarity, could preempt DIF with gender supporting the gendered–text effect while text familiarity benefiting, inversely, the participants with low level of text familiarity. For interest in topic, LR found a single item favoring the group with higher levels of interest and the IRT model detected DIF in either extreme. Regarding guessing and income, the LR indicated DIF supporting the low guessers and high–income group whereas IRT, conversely, showed DIF favoring the high guessers and low–income group. For location and education both methods, correspondingly, demonstrated DIF for the expensive location and educated groups. Finally, the differential test functioning result made it clear that only three sources of DIF (gender, income, & interests) were transferred to the test level. The findings could support a proportional effect of DIF sources.In recent years, language learning research has been paying more attention to the factors that may affect the choice by language learners of language learning strategies in general and writing strategies in particular to enhance their own learning. Given the socio–cognitive nature of the act of writing, as Roca de Larios et al. (2002) note, both writer–internal and –external factors have been reported to influence the deployment of writing strategies. Personality type, as one of the influential internal factors among others, is the focus of the present study, which intended to investigate English language learners’ writing strategies with reference to their personality types at different universities in Iran. To this end, a writing strategy questionnaire was employed to tap into the memory, cognitive, compensation, metacognitive, social, and affective strategies of 210 participants. The Myers–Briggs Type Indicator questionnaire was utilized to identify the self–reported personality types of Iranian EFL learners. The analysis of the participants’ perceptions demonstrated a significant relationship between writing strategies and personality types. Furthermore, it was found that metacognitive and cognitive strategies were the most frequently used strategies and memory strategies the least frequently used ones as reported by the participants.
اطلاعات انتشار: FALL ۲۰۱۴, Volume۶ - Number۳، سال ۰
تعداد صفحات: ۲۰
Recent versions of international high–stakes tests like TOEFL and IELTS have made use of integrated tasks in addition to the traditional independent tasks in a claim to provide a more realistic estimation of the test takers’ language abilities. The present study aimed to investigate how test takers’ performance may differ on such tasks. As such, the test takers’ performance was compared on IELTS Academic Writing Tasks 1 and 2. Whereas Task 1 is an integrated task which calls for graphic interpretation and description, Task 2 is an independent task of writing an argumentative essay. Furthermore, the study also aimed to investigate the effect of writing prompts on the test takers’ performance on such tasks. The study adopted a quasi–experimental design in the form of posttest–only group. Fifty six Iranian EFL learners at Shiraz University were selected based on their availability. After receiving instruction in a semester on how to do the two tasks, they received 4 writing tasks (2 versions of each task with different prompts). The data collected were analyzed through two–way repeated–measures ANOVA. The results indicated that task type did not have a significant effect on the test takers’ writing performance; that is, there were no significant differences between the participants’ performance on the independent and integrated writing tasks. Furthermore, the effect of prompts was only found to be significant on the participants’ performance on task 2 (independent task). The findings provide evidence for higher consistency of scores obtained from different versions of the integrated task.
اطلاعات انتشار: December ۲۰۱۴ ،Vol.۳ - No.۲، سال ۰
تعداد صفحات: ۲۴
Dynamic assessment (DA) which is rooted in Vygotsky’s (1978) sociocultural theory involves the integration of instruction and assessment in a dialectical way to achieve two main purposes: enhancing learners' development and understanding about their learning potential. However, the feasibility and appropriateness of mediation are two main concerns of DA. The former is concerned with the application of DA for a large number of students, while the latter is concerned with providing test takers with appropriate hints. The purpose of the current study was three–fold: to examine the difference between dynamic and nondynamic tests, to understand about test takers' potential for learning, and to find out how mediation works for high and low ability students. To achieve these aims, computer software was developed. The software is capable of both providing the test takers with graduated hints for each item automatically, and adapting the overall difficulty level of the test to the test takers' proficiency level. To test the efficiency of the software in employing dynamic assessment, 83 Iranian university students participated in the study. The results of the study indicated that the computerized dynamic test made significant contribution both to enhancing students' grammar ability and to obtaining information about their potential for learning. Based on the findings of the study, it can be concluded that the use of dynamic assessment can simultaneously lead to the development of the test takers' ability and provide a more comprehensive picture of learning potential. Accordingly, teachers are recommended to use dynamic assessment to make more informed decisions about their students.
۸INVESTIGATING THE VALIDITY OF PHD ENTRANCE EXAM OF ELT IN IRAN IN LIGHT OF ARGUMENT–BASED VALIDITY AND THEORY OF ACTION
اطلاعات انتشار: Summer ۲۰۱۵,Volume۷ - Number۲، سال ۰
تعداد صفحات: ۳۸
Although some piecemeal efforts have been made to investigate the validity and use of the Iranian PhD exam, no systematic project has been specifically carried out in this regard. The current study, hence, tried to attend to this void. As such, to ensure a balanced focus on test interpretation and test consequence, and to track evidence derived from a mixed–method study on the validity of Iranian PhD entrance exam of TEFL (IPEET), this study drew on a hybrid of two argument–based structures: Kane's (1992) argument model and Bennett's (2010) theory of action. Resting on the network of inferences and assumptions borrowed from the hybridized framework, the study investigated the extent to which the proposed assumptions would be supported by empirical evidence. It also examined the unintended consequences that may possibly be revealed through this validity investigation. Three sources of data informed the present study: (a) Test score data from about 1000 PhD applicants' taking IPEET test administered in 2014, (b) questionnaires completed by university professors and PhD students of TEFL, and finally, (c) telephone and focus–group interviews with university professors and PhD students of TEFL, respectively. The results from the analysis of mixed–method data indicated that all the inferences proposed for this study were rebutted, suggesting that some unintended consequences have happened to the technical as well as the decision quality of this test, hence its invalidity. Findings also provided valuable insights and suggestions for the betterment of the present content and current policy of IPEET in Iran.
اطلاعات انتشار: ۲۰۱۱, volume ۲ - Issue۱، سال ۰
تعداد صفحات: ۱۶
Every language involves friendly and polite as well as hostile and impolite situationsin which language users have to use the context–appropriate language. However,unlike politeness which has generated a great number of studies, few studies havebeen conducted on impoliteness especially in EFL contexts. The present study aimedto see whether language learners and teachers hold the same idea concerningteaching impoliteness in an Iranian EFL context. One hundred EFL learners and 70EFL teachers were surveyed through a questionnaire. The results indicated that thelanguage learners and teachers differed significantly in their attitudes towards mostof the issues related to impoliteness. However, gender was not a determining factorin this regard, as the only aspect of impoliteness in which gender made a significantdifference was the level of proficiency deemed appropriate for teachingimpoliteness.
۱۰Language Learning Strategy Use and Instruction for the Iranian Junior High School EFL Learners: A Mixed Methods Approach
اطلاعات انتشار: fall ۲۰۱۲, volume ۳ - Issue۲، سال ۰
تعداد صفحات: ۲۸
In order to confirm the effectiveness of language learning strategies in theIranian context in junior high schools, this study was designed to examine thepatterns of strategy use, the effects of strategy instruction on the students’ strategyuse, and the relationship between the participants’ strategy use and their Englishachievement. To achieve this objective, 57 junior high school participants studyingin 2 intact classes of the same school took part in the study. Each class wasrandomly assigned to either the control or experimental groups. The experimentalgroup received instruction on using strategies which were related to vocabulary andgrammar and were considered to be appropriate for their level. Due to practicalityreasons only 6 strategies were selected form Oxford’s taxonomy (1990). Gunning’sChildren’s SILL (1997, adapted from Oxford, 1990) was applied before and afterstrategy instruction. An EFL teacher–made achievement test was also conductedafter the treatment. The results revealed that affective category was the most usedcategory by the learners, followed by metacognitive, compensatory, memory, andsocial categories. Also, the cognitive category was the least used category. Thedifference between the control and experimental groups in terms of strategy useappeared to be significant, indicating the effectiveness of strategy instruction. Theresults also showed a significant positive relationship between the participants’strategy use and achievement.
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