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۱The Role of Pricing Policies in Electric Power Systems The Case of Sudan
نویسنده(ها): ،
اطلاعات انتشار: سیزدهمین کنفرانس بین المللی برق، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۸
Sudan is facing acute shortage in electricity supply, where demand is always overshooting the supply. This has resulted from delays in implementing energy projects due to lack of external and internal financing as well. In. addition, the subsidized prices of electricity has resulted in increased household energy consumption reaching 52% of total electric energy consumption. Since June 1996, the NEC has introduced new pricing policies so that it can cover operation and maintenance cost, reduce subsidies and direct electric energy to productive sectors rather than
services. To assess the effect of those policies, data concerning electricity generation and consumption in different sectors in the period 1987\88 to 1996\97 were collected from NEC monitoring reports. hi spite of discrepancies in household consumption of some years, street lighting and internal NEC consumption, the data are quite indicative and sufficient for the intended analysis. In, this analysis, two years data after implementing the new pricing policies were compared with previous consumption pattern.
Further, most of the analysis will concentrate on the National Grid (N.G) with special emphasis to Khartoum State, as being the major consumer of the generated electricity in the country and major industry is clustered around Khartoum. This is unlike regional cities which rely on isolated stations with limited generating capacities. This study is meant to assess and present the effect of the newpricing system on consumer behavior and its role as . an energy conservation mechanism that will enable NEC to reserve more energy to productive sectors.<\div>

۲Sectoral Evaluation of EIA Practice in the Sudan
نویسنده(ها): ، ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: International Journal Of Environmental Research، پنجم،شماره۱، Winter ۲۰۱۱، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۱۶
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) reports of projects in different development sectors in Sudan (Agriculture, Roads and highways, Power generation, Oil production, River engineering projects) were analyzed to investigate how these studies corresponded with the local, regional, international and good practice requirements. The results of the analysis illustrated some variations in the practice among the different sectors. Most of the practices failed in some major areas of EIA such as: timing of EIA in the project cycle, alternative analysis, limited tools applied which in most cases were insufficient for specific projects, EMP in most cases was not complete and was not considered in the cost–benefit analysis, monitoring plan, poor public participations and bad interaction with the decision making process. Generic EIA report review process devaluated the monitoring plan and sustainability of the EIA mitigations. Advantageously, EIA practice is becoming more popular in Sudanese development planning and there are lots of arguments about enhancing the legislation and regulations. However, common obstructions facing implementation of best EIA practices and compatibility with international norms are; the legal, institutional and administrative frameworks; shortcoming of expert agencies and specialists, and other difficulties related to the data collection and measurement.

۳Gasification Kinetics of Date palm seed using Carbon Dioxide
نویسنده(ها): ، ، ، ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: International Journal Of Environmental Research، هفتم،شماره۱، Winter ۲۰۱۳، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۸
Gasification is a well–known reaction owing to its relevance to generation of sustainable energy from biomass and development of porous carbons. The present paper attempts to experimentally investigate the kinetics of palm shell char gasification using carbon dioxide (CO2) in a controlled environment usingThermo Gravimetric Analyzer (TGA) at temperatures ranging from 800 to1000°C. A relevant kinetic modelrepresenting the experimental data was identified by fitting the experimental data with popular semi empirical kinetic models such as Linear Model (LM), Volume Reaction Model (VRM), Shrinking Core Model (SCM), and Random Pore Model (RPM). The model kinetic parameters were evaluated by minimizing the sum of root mean square error (RMSE). Among the models tested the RPM exhibited very close adherence to the experimental data evidenced from the minimum RMSE of 0.0046. The ability of the RPM model to represent the gasification kinetics was attributed to its ability to account for the pore growth during initial stages of gasification and destruction of pores due to coalescence in later stages of gasification. The rate of reaction increased with increase in temperature and activation energy was found to be 64.5 KJ\mol.

۴Application ofDonnanDialysis forCyanide Removal fromAqueous Solutions
نویسنده(ها): ، ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: International Journal Of Environmental Research، نهم،شماره۲، Spring ۲۰۱۵، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۶
Cyanide ion, is an environmentally significant pollutant in many industrial wastewaters. Therefore, a considerable number of methods have been studied for the wastewater treatment containing cyanide. the goal of our work consists in applying a simple and economic process for solving this problem of pollution. The removal of cyanide ions by using three anion exchange membranes has been studied under Donnan dialysis conditions as a function of initial concentration of cyanide, receiver phase composition and co–existence anions in the feed phase. The feasibility of the system was examined and the highest cyanide removal was obtained when the initial concentration of cyanide on the feed phase was 10–2 M. In addition, the accompanying counter–anions were also influenced in the cyanide transport in the order chloride > hydrogenocarbonate > sulphate. It was also observed that the cyanide transport efficiency of the Neosepta AFN was higher than that of the Neosepta AM3 and IONAC MA3475XL membranes. The better result for AFN membrane was obtained with chloride ion as a counter–anion in the receiver phase.
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