توجه: محتویات این صفحه به صورت خودکار پردازش شده و مقاله‌های نویسندگانی با تشابه اسمی، همگی در بخش یکسان نمایش داده می‌شوند.
۱Science Edification Arts: The Ultimate Frontiers to Eradicate Economic Sanctions
نویسنده(ها):
اطلاعات انتشار: کنفرانس بین المللی اقتصاد در شرایط تحریم، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۶
The objective of this systematic policy–making article is to design life pathways that establish elite edification–fueled, economic–sanctions–eradicating entrepreneurship in science and technology. Edification is not a single science but an integrated multiscience central to the wholeness of the global science and technology. Educators need to be persistently educated to become cognizant of state–of–the–art elite mentorship philosophies. This will enable economy–based science and technology to evolve timely and progressively. Elite–generating edificational psychology and entrepreneurship are emerging sciences, the inclusion of which inclusion in innovative policy–making will determine the depth of upcoming accomplishments in science and technology edification. Motivation is where learning evolves to more advanced levels for more effective communication and dissemination. Amalgamating different learning strategies result in more appropriate inclusion of elite–generating entrepreneurship in systematic edification. The goal will be to fuel creativity in all aspects of life. Mentorships arts equipped with moral edificational obligations will lead innovative economic–sanctions–eradicating programs for ongoing peace and prosperity.<\div>

۲Feeding Behavior of Lactating Dairy Cows Fed 1× vs. 4× Daily
نویسنده(ها):
اطلاعات انتشار: اولین همایش سراسری کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی پایدار، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۶
Feeding frequency (FF) has been a perplexing strategy in modern dairy production. The objective was to establish FF effects on eating, ruminating, and chewing behaviors of dairycows in a non–competitive environment. Eight multiparous, early–lactation Holstein cows housed in individual box stalls received either once daily (1×) at 07:00 h or 4 times daily(4×) at 01:00, 07:00, 13:00 and 19:00 h a chopped alfalfa hay based total mixed ration (TMR) in a crossover design with two 20–d periods. Once instead of four times feeding significantly increased dry matter intake (21.1 vs. 20.0 ± 0.5 kg\d) and elongated the first meal (106 versus 49 ± 21.5 min). Daily time spent eating (303 ± 37 min\d), ruminating (314 ± 34 min\d), total chewing (617 ± 55 min\d), laying (562 ± 57 min\d) and standing (666 ± 49 min\d) were not different between treatments. Findings provide novel evidence on feeding behavior response to FF in early–lactation cows under noncompetitive individual feeding and housing.<\div>

۳Increased Milk Production of Heat–Stressed Cows on Protected Met
نویسنده(ها):
اطلاعات انتشار: اولین همایش سراسری کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی پایدار، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۵
The objective was to determine long–lasting effects of a rumen–protected methionine (RPM) product (SmartamineMTM) on milk production properties of early lactation cows under extended very high ambient temperatures. Twenty four fresh Holstein cows including 12 second lactation and 12 higher lactation cows were randomly assigned to either control or RPM–supplemented total mixed rations (TMR) and fed continuously for 5 months. The RPM group had consistently greater 5–month–long average DM intake (21.9 vs. 19.1 kg\d), milk yield (42.4 vs. 37.4 kg\d), milk fat content (33 vs. 27.5 g\kg), fat yield (1.40 vs. 1.04 kg\d), milk protein content (29.6 vs. 27.5 g\kg) and protein yield (1.25 vs. 1.02 kg\d). Mature cows tended to produce more milk (42.2 vs. 37.6 kg\d) and milk fat (1.30 vs. 1.13 kg\d) than second lactation cows. Findings prove beneficial effects of long longlasting RPM provision on DMI and milk production of Holstein cows under concurrent metabolic pressures of early lactation and high ambient temperatures.<\div>

۴Timing of Eating Affects Cow Milk Fatty Acids Profiles
نویسنده(ها):
اطلاعات انتشار: اولین همایش سراسری کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی پایدار، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۴
The objective was to establish effects of providing a total mixed ration (TMR) at either 0900 h or 2100 h on milk fatty acids profiles in lactating cows. Four multiparous and four primiparous Holstein cows were used in a cross–over design study with two 6–week periods, each with 3–week adaptation. Milk proportions of total short, medium, and long chain fatty acids were not significantly affected by eating time. Feeding at 2100 h vs. 0900 h decreased (P< 0.05) milk proportions of C10:0, C12:0, C12:1, C13:0, C13:1 and C18:3 n–3, and tended to decrease (P <0.10) proportions of C8:0 and C18:1 trans–9, while increasing that of C18:0. Therefore, feed delivery at 2100 h vs. 0900 h improved milk energy output while to some extent manipulating milk fatty acids profiles. Future studies are required to explore mechanisms whereby timing of eating affects ruminant physiology.<\div>

۵Timing of Intake a Multi–Science in Ruminant Ecology:Rumen Dynamics
نویسنده(ها):
اطلاعات انتشار: اولین همایش سراسری کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی پایدار، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۴
The objective was to establish effects of providing a total mixed ration (TMR) at either 0900 or 2100 h on rumen volume, passage kinetics, and microbial protein biomass in lactating cows. Four multiparous and four primiparous Holstein cows were used in a cross over design study with two 6–week periods, each with 3–week adaptation. Total urine was collected during a sampling week in each period to measure urinary excretion of purine derivatives to estimate microbial protein biomass. Rumen ammonia concentrations were lower in primiparous cows fed at 2100 vs. 0900 h (10 vs. 11 mg\L, P<0.05). Rumen propionate was lower (26.5 vs. 28 mmol\L) and the acetate to propionate ratio was higher (2.1 vs. 1.9) in multiparous cows fed at 2100 vs. 0900 h. Microbial protein estimates were not significantly affected by eating time. Evening fed cows tended to experience a greater rumen volume than morning fed cows (107 vs. 90 L, P<0.010). Therefore, feed delivery at 2100 vs. 0900 h increased rumen volume and fermentation without significantly affecting microbial protein synthesis.<\div>

۶Edification of Green Science and Economy: Arts of Quality Life
نویسنده(ها):
اطلاعات انتشار: کنفرانس بین المللی و آنلاین اقتصاد سبز، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۵
The objective of this research was to establish artistic strategic foundations for green science and economy (GSE) science edification of the postmodern era. Edification bases GSE and is formulated as a multidisciplinary art. Arts are the means whereby man communicates with nature and environment. Pursuing arts will cause life affairs be efficient, perceivable, and pleasurable.Edification in GSE is to be performed as arts to be significant. Edification is optimally practiced by artists. Science in the postmodern age will focus on edification economy greeners. Harmonically,GSE edificators will have to qualify in arts and how to view GSE as an interdisciplinary art.Specialized brain development in various arts can help approach optimums in generating most fruitful GSE educators. Multispecialty proficient advances are keys into postmodern GSE’s technology and culture edification. Securing distinction in cross–science can be realized through GSE edification policies integrated with arts. Arts include abilities to educate beginners and growers with ease and pleasure. This can be granted with multiscience–founded GSE training. Basic sciences (e.g., physics, mathematics and chemistry) fit into applied sciences (e.g., bioenvironment,ecology, economy, medicine and engineering). Capable artists, namely musicians, often develop skills in complementary arts along with their own specialized art. The practices in GSE must learn from and continue to be inspired by arts. The innovative GSE edification programs will depend on arts as models to sustain harmony. Finest harmonies are sustained by assimilating multisciences as is rousing a piece of music by composing assorted melodies. Green economy science and technology, therefore, will be edificated artistically to be able to help form quality environments for the postmodern new millennium.<\div>

۷Commercial Exogenous Carbohydrases for Young Ruminants
نویسنده(ها):
اطلاعات انتشار: دومین همایش سراسری کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی پایدار، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۸
Early establishment of fibrolytic, amylolytic, and proteolytic capacities is influential for early expansion of the reticulorumen epithelia. This will enable a timelyhepatic adaptation to volatile fatty acids assimilation. The early nutrient release in the reticulorumen can thus facilitate early weaning, reduce labor costs, save milk, and lessen health issues associated with late weaning. The objective of this article is to delineate rolesof commercial exogenous carbohydrases (CEC) in stimulating fermentation developmentof the reticulorumen in young ruminants, to discuss the literature on nutrient digestibilityand calf performance response to dietary CEC, and to provide insights into future opportunities for using dietary CEC for young ruminants. Cow milk may reduce the risk ofcancer development and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, nutritional implications forhumans of supplementing calf diets with CEC and its potential for milk savings is alsodiscussed. Dietary incentives leading to savings in milk would aid in meeting the risinghuman demands for well–distributed milk products. Applying CEC to pre– and postweaning starters would need to be evaluated before CEC for young ruminants could be expected on a large scale. Any benefits of nutritional strategies to the animal industry mustalso consider their implications for human health. As such, dietary use of CEC for young ruminants may be considered as an interface of animal nutrition, farm economics, and animal–human health.<\div>

۸Improved Reproduction of Heat–Stressed Dairy Cows on Prolonged Protected Met
نویسنده(ها):
اطلاعات انتشار: دومین همایش سراسری کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی پایدار، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۵
The purpose of this research was to establish prolonged effects of a rumen–protected Met (RPM) product (SmartamineMTM) on reproduction of early–lactation cows underextended high ambient temperatures. A total of 24 Holstein cows including 12 second lactation and 12 higher lactation cows were randomly assigned to either control or RPMsupplementedtotal mixed rations (TMR, 520:480 g\kg forage:concentrate) for 5 months.Cows were offered TMR 3 times daily post–milking plus a top–dress alfalfa hay. The RPMimproved ovary function, estrus expression visibility and body condition score (3 vs. 2.6),while shortening days open (106 vs. 143) and calving interval (387 vs. 421 d). Findings provide evidence for beneficial effects of prolonged RPM provision on reproduction of Holstein cows under concurrent metabolic pressures of early lactation and stressful high ambient temperatures<\div>
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