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۱PERFORMANCE OF CONCRETE BUILDINGS IN MUZAFFARABAD EARTHQUAKE
اطلاعات انتشار: پنجمین کنفرانس بین المللی زلزله شناسی و مهندسی زلزله، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۸
A major earthquake of magnitude Mw = 7.6 struck the NWFP province of Pakistan and Azad Jammu Kashmir on October 8, 2005. More than four hundred thousand buildings of all types were reported to be partially or fully damaged by ground shaking produced by this earthquake. Reinforced concrete framed buildings with brick or block masonry infill walls have been utilized in commercial and public sector buildings over the last few years. Most of the concrete structures were semi–engineered as they were designed for gravity loads only. Several post–earthquake field visits to Muzaffarabad city were made by the authors to document the performance of concrete structures. In this paper, damages to reinforced
concrete buildings are identified and the possible causes are elaborated. The poor performance of reinforced concrete buildings is attributed both to design and construction deficiencies. The observed design deficiencies include poor detailing practice, lack of column confinement, strong beam and weak column and soft stories. The buildings were further weakened by improper compaction of concrete, improper location and treatment of construction joint and notching of column to support lintel beam.<\div>

۲BEHAVIOR OF MASONRY BUILDINGS IN MUZAFFARABAD DURING OCTOBER 08, 2005 EARTHQUAKE
اطلاعات انتشار: پنجمین کنفرانس بین المللی زلزله شناسی و مهندسی زلزله، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۸
The October 08, 2005 earthquake hit Northern Pakistan and Kashmir region. Muzaffarabad, the capital city of Kashmir was worst hit by this earthquake. Buildings constructed with stone, solid burnt clay brick, concrete block masonry and reinforced concrete were damaged. Post–earthquake reconnaissance surveys conducted by the authors revealed that all masonry buildings were non–engineered. To gain an idea about the building construction practices and construction materials in the earthquake affected area, a comprehensive survey of the buildings of Muzaffarabad city was performed and an inventory was developed. Analysis of the inventory data indicates that building plans with large aspect ratios or L– or U–shape in plane were widely practiced in the earthquake–affected areas. Buildings were constructed on stone masonry foundations. Use of heavy reinforced concrete floors is prevalent in the area for the last twenty years. The damages are attributed to improper connection between walls and, walls and floors; poor quality of construction materials, lack of through stone, slope failure and overhead water tank constructed on the top of buildings.<\div>
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