توجه: محتویات این صفحه به صورت خودکار پردازش شده و مقاله‌های نویسندگانی با تشابه اسمی، همگی در بخش یکسان نمایش داده می‌شوند.
۱Effectiveness of Using Brilliant Cresyl Blue Staining for Quality Evaluation and Developmental Competence of Immature and Mature Buffalo Oocytes
اطلاعات انتشار: Global Journal of Animal Scientific Research، چهارم،شماره۱، ۲۰۱۶، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۷
The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) stain on quality and developmental competence of mature and immature buffalo oocytes. Oocytes were exposed to BCB stain diluted in mDPBS (DPBS with 0.4% BSA) for 60 min at 38.5ºC in a humidified air atmosphere before, after maturation. The cleavage and blastocyst rates were determined. Results showed the percentage of BCB+: BCBˉ in immature and mature buffalo oocytes was 54:45 and 70:30 respectively. In immature oocytes percentage of embryo cleavage rate was highly significantly (P0.0001) increased in BCB+ than BCB¯ oocytes. Lower cleavage rates were reported in immature BCB+ (P0.05) and BCB¯(P0.0001) compared to control non exposed oocytes. There was no significant difference between control and BCB+ oocytes in cleavage rate but there was a significant (P 0.05) decrease in mature BCB¯ than control oocytes. In conclusion, BCB had a detrimental effect on immature buffalo oocytes, but had no effect on mature oocytes. Thus, it was recommended that BCB was not suitable for oocytes selection as it toxic, time and money consuming.

۲QUOTE–Expectation: Development of Valid and Reliable Questionnaire
اطلاعات انتشار: World Applied Sciences Journal، بيست و سوم،شماره۱، ۲۰۱۳، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۸
An expectation specific version of the QUOTE questionnaire was developed to measure the patients’ perspective on part of the healthcare providers. The consistency and validity of the questionnaire was assessed. Extensive literature review and focus group discussions were used to select aspects for inclusion in the questionnaire that are important to patients. Item and factor analysis and reliability analysis were performed to test the internal consistency and validity of the questionnaire. Sixteen items were used in the QUOTE– Expectation questionnaire. Factors analysis showed that the scale items were loaded on three distinct factors with eiginvalues more than 1 were obtained. The overall explained variance of scale was 84.28% of the total variance.The internal consistency of the total questionnaire was good (Cronbach’s alpha >0.90). Test–retest reliability was used to check the stability. Pearson correlation coefficient between the two assessments was high (r= 0, 967 p> 0.001). The QUOTE– expectation questionnaire has proved likely to be a valid and reliable tool that could be used to measure patient's expectation on part of the healthcare providers.

۳Relations between Deep and Shallow Stratigraphic Units of Northern Iraq during Cretaceous
نویسنده(ها): ، ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: Iranian Journal of Earth Sciences، چهارم،شماره۲، Oct ۲۰۱۲، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۹
The studied area includes Sulaimani, Erbil and Dohuk Governorates where Cretaceous rocks are well exposed in the High Folded Zone of North and Northeastern Iraq. This area is part of the northwestern boundary of Arabian platform near to Iranian border. In these governorates, the study tries to clarify the relations between deep and shallow stratigraphic units (formation or facies) during Cretaceous. The result of the present study is mainly depended on the field lateral tracing of the lithologic changes and paleontological evidences for indicating the new age termination of the units. The result showed as a generalized and simple model of temporal and special relations between Cretaceous deep and shallow water formations. The Balambo (Kazhdumi in Iran), Kometan (Ilam), Shiranish–Tanjero (Gurpi) Formations (as deep facies) are indicated as lateral equivalent of shallow facies of Qamchuqa (Sarvak and Dariyian), Bekhme (has not equivalent in Iran yet) and Aqra Formation (Seymare or Tarbur) respectively. On the model, the transition zone is indicated where the deep facies, from the east, change to shallow ones at the west. The shallow facies consist of coarse grain limestone with fossils skeletons, bioclasts and intraclasts. The deep facieses are fine grain pelagic limestone with microfossils (panktonic forams and nanofossils) whiles the transitional facies (zones) generally consist mixture of the two as interfigering relation between the deep and shallow facies. As the changes of the lithology of transitional zones are relatively sudden, therefore, they are not designated as formation and not defined previously.

۴Numerical Simulation on Wind Flow over Step–shaped Cliff Topography with Rough Surface
نویسنده(ها): ، ، ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: International Journal Of Environmental Research، هفتم،شماره۱، Winter ۲۰۱۳، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۱۴
To enhance the understanding of the impact of obstacle buildings on pollution transportationand dispersion in the atmospheric boundary layer, it is necessary to know the atmospheric flow characteristics over terrains. Wind flow characteristics in a boundary layer over a step–shaped cliff topography model with rough and smooth surfaces were studied numerically using Computational Fluid Dynamics models (CFD).The CFD models that were used for the simulation were based on the steady–state Reynolds–Average Navier–Stoke equations (RANS) with turbulence models; standard and RNG models. The rough surface was modeled using windbreak fence, which was set on the step–shaped cliff model surface. The results of the numerical model were validated against the wind tunnel results in order to optimize the turbulence model. Numerical predictions agreed reasonably with the wind tunnel results. The results indicated that rough surface has a great influence on the turbulent flow characteristics and vortex rotating. The wind velocity for rough surface near the ground level was observed to be lower than that for the smooth surface of the step–shaped cliff model. Large flow separations were formed by the windbreak fences. Distortion of the flow at the windward corner of the step created a steep gradient of velocity and large turbulent mixing.

۵A new switching strategy for exponential stabilization of uncertain discrete–time switched linear systems in guaranteed cost control problem
نویسنده(ها): ، ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: Iranian Journal of Electrical and Electronic Engineering، يازدهم،شماره۲، Jun ۲۰۱۵، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۹
Uncertain switched linear systems are known as an important class of control systems. Performance of these systems is affected by uncertainties and its stabilization is a main concern of recent studies. Existing work on stabilization of these systems only provides asymptotical stabilization via designing switching strategy and state–feedback controller. In this paper, a new switching strategy and a state–feedback control law are designed to exponentially stabilize Uncertain Discrete–Time Switched Linear Systems (UDSLS), considering a given infinite–horizon cost function. Our design procedure consists of three steps. First, we generalize the exponential stabilization theorem of nonlinear systems to UDSLS. Second, based on the Common Lyapunov Function technique, a new stabilizing switching strategy is presented. Third, a sufficient condition on the existence of state–feedback controller is provided in the form of Linear Matrix Inequality. Besides, convergence rate is obtained and the upper bound of the cost is calculated. Finally, effectiveness of the proposed method is verified via numerical example.

۶Object–Based Classification of UltraCamD Imagery for Identification of Tree Species in the Mixed Planted Forest
نویسنده(ها): ، ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences، نهم،شماره۱، ۲۰۱۱، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۱۳
This study is a contribution to assess the high resolution digital aerial imagery for semi–automatic analysis of tree species identification. To maximize the benefit of such data, the object–based classification was conducted in a mixed forest plantation. Two subsets of an UltraCam D image were geometrically corrected using aero–triangulation method. Some appropriate transformations were performed and utilized. Segmentation was conducted stepwise at two levels and a hierarchical image object network wasconstructed. The classification hierarchy was developed and Nearest Neighbor classifier, using integration of different features was performed. Training samples and ground truth map were prepared through fieldwork. Accuracy assessment of the resulting maps in comparison with reference data showed overall accuracies and Kappa Index of Agreement of 90.2%, 0.82 (Area1) and 69.8%, 0.49 (Area2), respectively.Transformed images were advantageous to improve the results. The lower accuracy in Area2 can be attributed to high diversity and heterogeneous mixture of species. More detailed and accurate mapping of tree species would be fulfilled applying precise 3D data. The accuracy of detailed vegetation classification with very high–resolution imagery is highly dependent on the segmentation quality, sample size, sampling quality, classification framework and ground vegetation distribution and mixture.

۷An Overview of Potential Ecotourism Resources and Their Prospects in Valley of Flowers National Park, Uttaranchal, India
نویسنده(ها): ، ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences، نهم،شماره۱، ۲۰۱۱، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۶
Protected areas are major tourism assets for a nation, particularly for developing countries providing sustainable benefit to the local community while funding for the maintenance and rehabilitation of the protected areas themselves. Valley of flowers national park is naturally meant for the conservation and study of western Himalayan flora. It became National park in 1982 and after that livestock grazing ceased and restrictions were imposed on nearby villagers. The valley has an unusually rich flora of over 600 Himalayan species growing in an area of less than 2500 hectares with many rarities. Animals found are nationally rare or endangered. It is also a habitat of endangered Asiatic black beer, brown bear, Himalayan musk deer and snow leopard, blue sheep are rare. The common leopard is reported from lower parts of valley closer to the villages. Local people have also reported evidence of Himalayan brown bear. Other factors that are contributing to ecotourism are beautiful landscapes, peaks, lakes and tarns etc. Because of the heavy influx of tourists and improper management practices the problem of solid waste in increasing at an alarming rate. This paper is an overview of the present ecotourism resources of the area and their future prospects for sustainable ecotourism.

۸Effect of age on reproductive performance in female Caspian brown trout (Salmo trutta caspious, Kessler 1877)
نویسنده(ها): ، ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences، نهم،شماره۱، ۲۰۱۱، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۷
Caspian brown trout (Salmo trutta caspius) is one of the economically valuable species in the Caspian Sea. Artificial propagation and production of larvae are the main problems in the early culture of this species. The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of reproductive performance of female broods on opposition reproduction efficiency in Caspian brown trout in the breeding season of 2009. Three groups of female broods (4, 5 and 6 years old) were fertilized with 9 male fish individually. The results showed that,6 year old females have maximum body weight (2150.0 ± 86.6 g), total length (59±2 cm), eggs weight (255.0 ± 30.51 g), egg size (5.37 ± 0.058 mm) and absolute fecundity rate (3060 ± 366.15), while highest average number of ovules in each gram of body weight (16.33 ± 0.58) and relative fecundity (2.08 ± 0.12) belonged to 4 years old females. There were significant differences in mean fertilization rate and survival rate untilabsorption of yolk sack stage (p0.05) among the treatments studied. The present study showed that the eggs produced from fertilization of 6 year old female eggs and male mixed milt showed maximum average fertilization percentage (97.5 %), survival rate until eyed stage (92%), hatching percentage (93%), and survival rate until absorption of yolk sack (94.5%).

۹Isotherm and Kinetic Studies on Adsorption of Pb, Zn and Cu by Kaolinite
نویسنده(ها): ، ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences، نهم،شماره۲، ۲۰۱۱، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۱۴
The feasibility of kaolinite used as a low–cost adsorbent for the removal of Pb(II), Zn(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solutions was investigated. During the removal process, batch technique was used, and the effects of heavy metal concentration and contact time on adsorption efficiency at pH of 4.5, under a constant temperature of 20?1 ?C were studied. The experimental results were analyzed using four adsorption isotherm models; Freundlich, Langmuir, Temkin and Redlich–Peterson. Evaluating the correlation coefficients showed that the Redlich–Peterson isotherm described the data appropriable than others. The adsorption capacities (qm) from the Langmuir isotherm for Pb(II), Zn(II) and Cu(II) are found as 7.75 mg\g, 4.95 mg\g and 4.42 mg\g respectively. The effectiveness of kaolinite in the sorption of the three metals from aqueous system was Pb(II) > Zn(II) > Cu(II). Kinetic studies showed that a pseudo–second order model was more suitable than the pseudo first order model. It is concluded that kaolinite can be used as an effective adsorbent for removing Pb(II), Zn(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solutions.

۱۰GGE Biplot and AMMI Analysis of Yield Performance of Barley Genotypes across Different Environments in Iran
اطلاعات انتشار: Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology، شانزدهم،شماره۳، ۲۰۱۴، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۱۴
Twenty promising barley lines were evaluated at seven research stations in Iran, during two cropping seasons. The analysis of variance on grain yield data showed mean squares of environments, genotypes and Genotype×Environment Interaction (GEI) as significant, respectively accounting accounted for 60.38, 4.52 and 35.09% of treatment combination sum of squares. To find out the effects of GEI on grain yield, the data were subjected to Additive Main effects and Multiplicative Interaction (AMMI) and Sites Regression (SREG) GGE biplot analysis. Mega–environmental investigation is the most suitable way to utilize GEI. "Which–won–where" pattern was followed with three distinct mega–environments found in the barley assessment. Entries G5 and G6 showed general adaptability while G7 and G13 exhibited specific adaptation to Neishabour and Esfehan, respectively. Considering both techniques, genotype G1 revealed high grain yield along with yield stability. With regard to barley assessment, Esfehan was identified as a location with larger main effects interaction, making it a less predictable location for barley variety evaluation. The results finally indicated that AMMI and GGE biplot are informative methods to explore stability and adaptation pattern of genotypes in practical plant breeding and in subsequent variety recommendations. In addition, finding mega–environments help to identify the must suitable barley cultivars that can be recommended for areas within the mega–environment in either one or more test locations.
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