توجه: محتویات این صفحه به صورت خودکار پردازش شده و مقاله‌های نویسندگانی با تشابه اسمی، همگی در بخش یکسان نمایش داده می‌شوند.
۱Prevention of diagnostic errors in position of conus medullaris in adult patients
اطلاعات انتشار: International Journal of Epidemiologic Research، دوم،شماره۳، ۲۰۱۵، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۸
Background: Finding the safe location of spinal cord for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during surgical procedures is very important due to its various nature for each patient as well as its potential peripheral nervous system hazards. The aim of this study was to find the relationship between the location of conus medullaris (CM) and gender, age and body mass index (BMI) in order to minimize the potential diagnostic errors.Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with T1–weighted sagittal spin echo sequences of the lumbar spine was studied in 350 patients older than 20 years, whom had been referred for imaging in order to assess the potential causes of low back pain of the lumbar spine, and were referred to Shahid Chamran MRI center in Sanandaj, located in the west of Iran in 2014. The results were compared with international standards to reveal the potential errors.Results: In different age groups, the mean position was variable ranging from T12–L1 intervertebral disc to upper part of L1 middle third, not clinically significant. The inter canal position of the spinal cord was toward dorsal. No significant relationship was found between CM and gender, age as well as BMI. Similar relationship was found for the spinal cord position in spinal column.Conclusion: There is a safe region of 2–4 vertebral bodies and intervertebral spaces during spinal block. It means that the variation of CM position and its end level could be a guidance to realize that why neurological symptoms may vary in different patients.

۲Medical imaging modalities: Prevention of unnecessary orders and non–optimized radiation exposure
اطلاعات انتشار: International Journal of Epidemiologic Research، دوم،شماره۴، ۲۰۱۵، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۲
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a constant magnetic field and radio waves, a non–invasive method for examining tissues, organs and the skeletal system. The advantages and disadvantages of MRI is not fully understood. In the computerized tumor (CT) scan, as an invasive method, the x–rays of the body is used for tomography; which different x–ray attenuation coefficient in tissues as well as the reconstruction of images could affect on the scanning of the patient and the received amount of radiation by the patient. However, compared to other radiographical diagnostic methods, CT scan could lead to the exposure of the patients against substantial radiation dosage, which may have several radiobiological effects such as delayed effects of radiation (possible effect) with the result of a variety of cancers, chromosomal failures and potential genetic abnormalities in the future generations.It is recommended that these tests would prescribe for the patients with greater accuracy and caution; with application of magnetic dosimeter for monitoring exposure of people who working with MRI (as its application for X–ray and CT scan).

۳Epidemiology of traumatic spinal cord injury: The substantial role of imaging methods
اطلاعات انتشار: International Journal of Epidemiologic Research، سوم،شماره۲، ۲۰۱۶، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۴
Background and aims: One of the most common injuries around the world is the traumatic injury of the spine and spinal cord with unknown worldwide situation of traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) affecting on the effectiveness of preventive policy programs. In addition, because of possibility of making paralysis, the potential injury to the spine could be one of the most important traumas and a major cause of disability. Methods: This research is a review study. Initial studies had focused on the descriptive epidemiology, considering incidence rates, age, gender, race, etiology and level and completeness of injury, but the recent researches are focusing on identifying of the high–risk groups, making awareness, establishing trends, predicting the needs, and thus contributing to effective health care planning of this condition. Results: An important part of the prognosis, diagnosis and management of acute and chronic spinal trauma could be diagnostic medical imaging. While spinal cord and soft–tissue injuries could be evaluated better by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); spine fractures could be characterized better by computed tomography (CT). Conclusion: Imaging using CT and MRI is essential in the management of acute\chronic spinal cord injuries. The problem could be that due to fear of clinicians from missing occult spine injuries, they ask radiographs for almost all injured patients. It is recommended that a National Registry for spinal cord injuries be established by the national Ministry of Health, so that the etiological pattern of spinal cord injuries in the world can be known.
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