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۱Pharmaceutical and nutraceutical effects of Pinus pinaster bark extract
نویسنده(ها): ،
اطلاعات انتشار: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences، ششم،شماره۱(پياپي ۱۱)، ۲۰۱۱، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۱۲
In everyday life, our body generates free radicals and other reactive oxygen species which are derived either from the endogenous metabolic processes (within the body) or from external sources. Many clinical and pharmacological studies suggest that natural antioxidants can prevent oxidative damage. Among the natural antioxidant products, Pycnogenol® (French Pinus pinaster bark extract) has been received considerable attention because of its strong free radical–scavenging activity against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. P. pinaster bark extract (PBE) contains polyphenolic compounds (these compounds consist of catechin, taxifolin, procyanidins of various chain lengths formed by catechin and epicatechin units, and phenolic acids) capable of producing diverse potentially protective effects against chronic and degenerative diseases. This herbal medication has been reported to have cardiovascular benefits, such as vasorelaxant activity, angiotensin–converting enzyme inhibiting activity, and the ability to enhance the microcirculation by increasing capillary permeability. Moreover, effects on the immune system and modulation of nitrogen monoxide metabolism have been reported. This article provides a brief overview of clinical studies describing the beneficial and health–promoting effects of PBE.

۲Effects of methanolic and butanolic fractions of Allium elburzense Wendelbo bulbs on blood glucose level of normal and STZ–induced diabetic rats
اطلاعات انتشار: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences، هفتم،شماره۴(پياپي ۱۶)، ۲۰۱۲، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۸
Allium elburzense (A. elborzense, Alliaceae), a plant rich in saponins, is an edible vegetable in northern Iran with a folk background use as antidiabetic which has not yet been examined for this indication. To evaluate the antidiabetic potential of A. elburzense, its hydroalcoholic (HdAE) and butanolic extracts (BuE) were examined. The acute (1, 2, 3, 4, 8 h) and sub–acute (11 days) effects of oral (p.o.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of HdAE and BuE of A. elburzense bulbs in different doses were evaluated on blood glucose levels of normal and streptozotocin (STZ, 55 mg\kg body weight)–induced diabetic rats. Glibenclamide (1 mg\kg b.w.) was used as reference drug. Sub–acute treatment with HdAE for 11 days reduced significantly blood glucose levels in diabetic rats (at least P0.05), while BuE was effective only following i.p. administration (P0.01). Acute administration did not reduce blood glucose level in normal and diabetic animals. It is concluded that HdAE of A. elburzense exhibited a significant antihyperglycemic activity following chronic administration. These results provide evidence for potential use of A. elburzense in diabetes mellitus considering the fact that this plant is endemic to a location of Iran where diabetes is a high prevalence disorder.

۳The effects of methanolic, chloroform, and ethylacetate extracts of the Cucurbita pepo L. on the delay type hypersensitivity and antibody production
نویسنده(ها): ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences، هفتم،شماره۴(پياپي ۱۶)، ۲۰۱۲، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۸
Pumpkin, as a dietary plant, has been used in traditional medicine around the world. In addition, during the last decade, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, antitumor, intestinal antiparasitic, antibacterial, anti hypercholesterolemia, anti–inflammatory, immunomodulatory and analgic effects of pumpkin has been reported. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of different extracts of Cucurbita pepo L. on the immune responses. Methanolic, chloroform and ethylacetate extracts of C. pepo fruits was obtained using percolation method. Mice were used to study the effects of C. pepo extracts on the acquired immunity. Sheep red blood cell (SRBC) was injected (S.C., 1×108 cells\ml, 20 ml) and 5 days later, methanolic, chloroform and ethylacetate extracts of C. pepo at diiferent doses (10, 100 and 500 mg\kg), betamethasone and levamisol at equal doses (4 mg\kg) as positive controls and normal saline as a negative control were given i.p. After 1 h SRBC was injected to the footpad (S.C., 1×108 cells\ml, 20 ml) and the footpad swelling was measured up to 72 h. To investigate the effects of C. pepo on the innate immunity the same procedure was used, but animals received only one injection of SRBC 1 h after i.p. injection of test compounds. Our findings showed that SRBC induced an increase in the paw swelling with maximum response at 6–8 h. Betamethasone inhibited the paw swelling in both models. In both innate and acquired immunity models, methanolic, chloroform and ethylacetate extracts of C. pepo fruits significantly reduced the paw swelling dose dependently. The data suggest that the pumpkin extracts may have immunomodulatory effects.

۴The effects of chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of Brassica rapa L. on cell–mediated immune response in mice
نویسنده(ها): ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences، هشتم،شماره۳(پياپي ۲۰)، ۲۰۱۳، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۷
Turnips with a long history of usage, are helpful in preventing breast and prostate cancer, inflammation and body`s immune system dysfunction. In this study, we investigated the effects of chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of Brassica rapa L. on cell–mediated immune response in mice. Chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of B. rapa glands were prepared by maceration method. To study the effects of B. rapa on acquired immunity, groups of Balb\c mice (n=8) were used. Sheep red blood cell (SRBC) was injected (s.c., 1×108 cells\ml, 0.02 ml) and 5 days later, different extracts (10, 100 and 500 mg\kg), betamethasone (4 mg\kg) and Levamisol (4 mg\kg) as a positive control and normal saline as a negative control were given i.p. After 1 h SRBC was injected to footpad (s.c., 1×108 cells\ml, 0.02 ml) and footpad swelling was measured up to 72 h. To investigate the effects of B. rapa on innate immunity the same procedure was used, but animals only received one injection of SRBC 1 h after i.p. injection of test compounds. Our findings showed that SRBC induced an increase in paw swelling with maximum response at 6–8 and 2–4 h for innate and acquired immunity, respectively. Betamethasone inhibited and levamisol increased paw thickness in both models. In both innate and acquired immunity models, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of B. rapa glands significantly and dose–dependently reduced paw thickness. Ethyl acetate extract showed better effect. As glucosinolates are better extracted by ethyl acetate, it may be concluded that they are contributed in the more pronounced effects of ethyl acetate extract.

۵Phytochemical analysis of Pinus eldarica bark
نویسنده(ها): ،
اطلاعات انتشار: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences، نهم،شماره۴(پياپي ۲۵)، ۲۰۱۴، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۸
Bark extract of Pinus pinaster contains numerous phenolic compounds such as catechins, taxifolin, and phenolic acids. These compounds have received considerable attentions because of their anti–inflammatory, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, antimetastatic and high antioxidant activities. Although P. pinaster bark has been intensely investigated in the past; there is comparably less information available in the literature in regard to P. eldarica bark. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of P. eldarica commonly found in Iran. A reversed–phase high pressure liquid chromatography (RP–HPLC) method for the determination of catechin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and taxifolin in P. pinaster and P. eldarica was developed. A mixture of 0.1% formic acid in deionized water and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile was used as the mobile phase, and chromatographic separation was achieved on a Nova pack C18 at 280 nm. The two studied Pinus species contained high amounts of polyphenolic compounds. Among four marker compounds, the main substances identified in P. pinaster and P. eldarica were taxifolin and catechin, respectively. Furthermore, the composition of the bark oil of P. eldarica obtained by hydrodistillation was analyzed by gas chromatography\mass spectroscopy (GC\MS). Thirty–three compounds accounting for 95.1 % of the oil were identified. The oils consisted mainly of mono– and sesquiterpenoid fractions, especially α–pinene (24.6%), caryophyllene oxide (14.0%), δ–3–carene (10.7%), (E)–β–caryophyllene (7.9%), and myrtenal (3.1%).

۶Synthesis of silver nanoparticles: chemical, physical and biological methods
نویسنده(ها): ، ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences، نهم،شماره۶(پياپي ۲۷)، ۲۰۱۴، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۲۲
Silver nanoparticles (NPs) have been the subjects of researchers because of their unique properties (e.g., size and shape depending optical, antimicrobial, and electrical properties). A variety of preparation techniques have been reported for the synthesis of silver NPs; notable examples include, laser ablation, gamma irradiation, electron irradiation, chemical reduction, photochemical methods, microwave processing, and biological synthetic methods. This review presents an overview of silver nanoparticle preparation by physical, chemical, and biological synthesis. The aim of this review article is, therefore, to reflect on the current state and future prospects, especially the potentials and limitations of the above mentioned techniques for industries.
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