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۱Numerical Simulation of Counter–Current Spontaneous Imbibition, with Focus on Scaling Methods
نویسنده(ها): ،
اطلاعات انتشار: دومین کنفرانس بین المللی نفت، گاز و پتروشیمی، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۱۲
Oil production using water flooding is probably the most widely used technique in secondary oil recovery in conventional and fractured reservoirs. Oil recovery mechanisms during water flooding in these two reservoir types is completely different and more complex in the latter compared to the former. Experiments have shown imbibition dominated flow regime from matrix to fractures in fractured formations under influence of capillary forces. Spontaneousimbibition may take place concurrently, in which water and oil flow in the same direction, or counter–currently, in which oil and water flow in the opposite directions. In this study, the counter–current spontaneous imbibition is numerically modeled, in both cylindrical and Cartesian coordinates in one dimension. Using the developed mathematical model, the impact of some of the pertinent parameters on imbibition rate are examined. Usuallyrecovery in reservoir is predicted by scaling–up of experimental and simulation data at laboratory scale. In order to scale recovery data, dimensionless groups have been introduced over time. Based on the results of this study, the effects of higher water and oil viscosities have been foundto reduce the oil recovery over time. It has also been evident that as initial water saturation becomes higher at the beginning of imbibition process, oil recovery decreases. Based on the scaling analysis of this study, it became evident that Rapaport dimensionless group better generalize the results than that of Ma group as long as the oil and water viscosity are not to be scaled, otherwise Ma group would be preferred.<\div>

۲Streamline Based Modeling and Simulation of Carbonated Water Injection
نویسنده(ها): ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: دومین کنفرانس ملی و بین المللی نفت، گاز، پالایش و پتروشیمی، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۱۴
Streamline simulation recently has gained much attentions due to its advantages over conventional finite difference (FD) and new reservoir engineering data that this technology can provide. In this work streamline simulation has been extended for the first time to simulate carbonated water injection (CWI). In the numerical model proposed here, first governing equations describing flow of oil and gas phases each containing an additional component of Co2 are presented. Pressure is solved implicitly in conventional 3D grid and Darcy velocity is obtained at the faces of the blocks using pressure field. Streamlines are launched from the face of injection well and using semi–analytical algorithm of Pollock, they are traced to the face of production well. Then governing equations are transformed to the time of flight coordinates and are solved along the streamline grids.In this work a hypothetical 2D reservoir has been utilized. First the amount of Co2 at injection well has been set to zero so that the simulator simulates plain water injection and the results have been confirmed by results from FD solution of Eclipse. Then Co2 is allowed to dissolve into water at injection well to simulate CWI. Distribution of saturation and compositions are obtained along streamlines and then are mapped back to 3D grids. After 4.9 pore volume injection of CW, 24.1 percent additional oil recovery was achieved.<\div>
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