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۱Prevalence and species identification of Sarcocystis in raw hamburgers distributed in Yazd, Iran using PCR–RFLP
اطلاعات انتشار: Journal of Food Quality and Hazards Control، اول،شماره۱،۲۰۱۴، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۶
Introduction: Hamburger is a popular type of fast foods consumed all over the world. Sarcocystis spp. is a zoonotic parasitic pathogen which endangers safety of meat and meat products. The present study describes the prevalence rate of Sarcocystis spp. in hamburgers in Yazd, Iran using PCR–RFLP. Materials and methods: Raw hamburger samples (100 traditional and 90 industrial) from central region of Iran, Yazd were randomly selected. The genomic DNA was extracted using salting out method. Detection and identification of Sarcocystis isolates was performed using PCR–RFLP. Results: The results showed that 77.9% of all tested hamburger samples were infected with Sarcocystis spp. The infection rate in the traditional hamburger (87%) was significantly (p0.05) higher than the industrial ones (67.8%). The rate of S. cruzi, S. hirsuta and S. hominis in the traditional hamburger samples, was 39%, 61% and 54% respectively; while the rate of S. cruzi, S. hirsuta and S. hominis in the industrial hamburgers was 67.8%, 58.9% and 57.8%. S. cruzi, respectively. The rate was significantly (p0.05) higher in industrial hamburgers than in the traditional ones. No statistical association was found between percentage of meat content and the rate of contamination in the industrial hamburger (p>0.05). Conclusion: Having zoonotic significance, considerable infestation rate of S. hominis seems to be high in hamburgers of this region of Iran. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first of its own kind carried out in hamburger samples in Iran.

۲Determination of phytic acid content in different types of bread and dough consumed in Yazd, Iran
اطلاعات انتشار: Journal of Food Quality and Hazards Control، اول،شماره۱،۲۰۱۴، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۳
Introduction: Bread made ​​from wheat flour is an important source of minerals such as iron and zinc, but its phytic acid content is a contributing factor that can cause decreased absorption of these minerals. This survey aimed to determine phytic acid content in different types of bread and dough consumed in Yazd, Iran. Materials and methods: A descriptive, cross–sectional study was carried out in 2013 on 100 samples including 50 samples of bread and 50 ones of dough from Yazd, Iran. After extraction and preparation stages, samples were analyzed by HPLC system to determine phytic acid. Results: The results demonstrated that in 15 samples (30%) of dough and in 9 samples (18%) of breads, phytic acid concentration was more than acceptable level (10 mg\100g) . Among the studied breads, Barbari had the lowest (7±1.5 mg\100g ) and Lavash (9.8±0.4 mg\100g) had the highest amount of phytic acid. ­ Also, there was an inverted correlation among fermentation time and phytic acid concentrations, especially in Tafton dough (p=0.03) and Barbari (p= 0.005). Conclusion: It is a necessity to offer practical solutions for prevention of anti nutritional effects of phytic acid in bread and dough.

۳Rate of Carcass and Offal Condemnation in Animals Slaughtered at Yazd Slaughterhouse, Central Iran
اطلاعات انتشار: Journal of Food Quality and Hazards Control، اول،شماره۲،۲۰۱۴، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۴
Background: Sohan is a traditional Iranian confectionery product prepared mainly by mixing and cooking of wheat flour, sugar, malt, oil, natural flavoring additives and coloring materials. Regarding to high consumption and popularity of Sohan as well as importance of its safety and hygienic status, we investigated microbial and chemical profiles of Sohan in retailers throughout Qom province of Iran during 2013.Methods: Hundred Sohan samples were collected from Qom retail markets over a 6–month period in 2013. American Public Health Association (APHA) and International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) methods were used to determine Sohan’s microbial and chemical profiles, respectively. Statistical analysis was carried out by analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS statistical software version 16.0.Results: The obtained mean count of Enterobacteriaceae, s, molds and Staphylococcus aureus, yeasts were 2.14×102±623.6, 5.38×102±593.5, 1.56×102±221.5 and 2.51×102±164.9 CFU\g, respectively. Also, Escherichia coli was found in 10% of Sohan samples. The mean of peroxide and acidity values was 2.59±1.2 mEq\Kg and 0.33±0.2%, respectively. The present research represented that microbial and fungal contamination was significantly higher (p0.01) during the warm months (July, August and September). Conclusion: According to this study, all Sohan samples had peroxide values and acidity in normal range, but the large number of food borne pathogens was detected in Sohan samples especially during warm months, represented potential health hazard to consumers.

۴High Occurrence of Sarcocystis Cysts in Meat Produced in Yazd, Central Iran
اطلاعات انتشار: Journal of Food Quality and Hazards Control، اول،شماره۴، ۲۰۱۴، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۷
Background: Sarcocystosis is one of the most widespread parasitic diseases in cattle caused by three main species of Sarcocystis genus. The major aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. in meat produced in Yazd, central Iran with special reference to species identification, using Polymerase Chain Reaction–Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR–RFLP). Methods: During March 2012 to May 2013, samples were randomly collected from esophagus, heart, diaphragm, intercostal muscle and tongue of 120 slaughtered cattle at Yazd, central Iran. After DNA extraction, PCR–RFLP was used for detection and identification of Sarcocystis spp. The statistical analysis was performed by Chi–Square test, using SPSS software (v. 16.0). Results: The molecular analysis showed that Sarcocystis spp. was found in 112 of 120 (93.3%) slaughtered cattle. The prevalence of S. cruzi, S. hirsuta and S. hominis were 90%, 38.3% and 57.5% respectively. Among the 112 infected cattle, single and multiple (infected by more than one species) infection were seen in 45 and 67 cattle, respectively. No significant association was detected between sex, age, sample type and the prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. (p>0.05). Conclusion: Considering its public health importance, high prevalence of S. hominis should be highlighted in this region. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first of its kind to be conducted in Iran. More detailed studies are needed to describe the distribution pattern and species identification of Sarcocycstis spp. in other regions of Iran.

۵Aflatoxin M1 Contamination in Industrial and Traditional Yogurts Produced in Iran
اطلاعات انتشار: Journal of Food Quality and Hazards Control، دوم،شماره۱، ۲۰۱۵، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۴
Background: Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a major carcinogenic compound that may be existed in milk and dairy products. This study was aimed to determine the presence of AFM1 in industrial and traditional yogurt samples produced in Iran. Methods: A total of 80 yogurt samples (40 industrial, 40 traditional) was collected from supermarkets in Yazd city, Iran. AFM1 content of the selected samples was determined by enzyme linked immunesorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Analysis of the data indicated that 96.25% of the yogurt samples were contaminated with AFM1 in concentration levels ranging from 5 to 91 ng\kg. The AFM1 content of 5% of the samples was higher than the limit accepted by European Union (50 ng\kg). The mean concentration of AFM1 in traditional yogurt (33.6 ng\kg) was significantly (p0.05) higher than industrial ones (24.55 ng\kg). Conclusion: High level of AFM1 contamination of yogurt produced in Iran could be a serious risk for the public health.

۶A Survey on Relationship between Diet and Urinary Excretion of Aflatoxin M1: A Screening Pilot Study on Iranian Population
اطلاعات انتشار: Journal of Food Quality and Hazards Control، دوم،شماره۲، ۲۰۱۵، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۵
Background: Aflatoxins are found in the most types of foods such as corn, peanuts, pistachio, rice, milk, and etc. These toxins may cause several adverse health effects, notably cancer. The main aim of this study was to evaluate excretion level of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), as a biomarker of aflatoxin B1 exposure, in urine samples of Iranian population. Also, relationship between diet and urinary excretion of AFM1 has been discussed. Methods: From June to August 2014, this study was carried out among 70 staffs from Faculty of Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran. From each participant, 72–h dietary recall was asked and recorded. Then, urine samples were collected separately in the sterile plastic falcon and transferred immediately to the laboratory and stored at –20 °C. AFM1 was assessed in each sample using ELISA procedure. The data were analyzed by Kruskal–Wallis one–way analysis of variance test using SPSS software (16.0). Results: AFM1 was detected in 15 of 70 (21%) urine samples. The mean levels of contamination in faculty members and non–faculty members were 0.6 and 1.7 pg\ml, respectively. There was a significant difference between the excretion of AFM1 and consumption of nuts as well as Iranian traditional confection (p0.05). No relationship was found between the demographic factors and excretion of AFM1 (p>0.05). Conclusions: Considering adverse health effect, aflatoxin exposure in this Iranian population should be reduced. So, comprehensive training of the people is one of the most practical and useful methods for reducing aflatoxin health risks.

۷Application of Morphological Method for Detection of Unauthorized Tissues in Processed Meat Products
اطلاعات انتشار: Journal of Food Quality and Hazards Control، دوم،شماره۲، ۲۰۱۵، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۴
Background: Nowadays, there is an increase of meat and animal carcass consumption worldwide. Due to the economic value of meat, the likelihood of using unauthorized tissue is possible in meat products. Based on these observations, the aim of the present study was to apply morphological method for detection of unauthorized tissues in processed meat products. Methods: In this study, a total of 20 samples of different types of processed meat products including Kabab Loghme (n=5), sausage (n=5), handmade hamburger (n=5) and Kabab Koobideh (n=5) were randomly collected from restaurants and supermarkets in Iran. The samples were divided into three parts and then, one piece was taken from each part for the histological study. The tissues were fixed in 10% neutral–buffered formalin and were dehydrated and embedded in paraffin and routinely processed for light microscopy. The paraffin–embedded blocks were cut into 6 μm sections and stained using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) for histological study. Results: The skeletal muscle tissues were visible clearly in all samples. A wide range of unauthorized tissues have been detected including connective tissue (n=20), gizzard (n=2), adipose tissue (n=7), soya (n=11), cartilage (n=5) and ovary (n=1). Conclusion: The present study showed the use of unauthorized tissues in Iranian processed meat products which were detectable by histological method. Therefore, histological technique may be a simple and economic tool for evaluation of the meat adulteration and to improve hygiene and meat quality.

۸Reduction of Aflatoxin M1 during Production of Kashk, a Traditional Iranian Dairy Product
اطلاعات انتشار: Journal of Food Quality and Hazards Control، سوم،شماره۱، ۲۰۱۶، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۵
Background: Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a toxic compound that could be found in milk and dairy products. AFM1 is the principle hydroxylated derivative of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), formed in liver and excreted into the milk in the mammary glands of both human and lactating animals that have been fed with AFB1 contaminated diet. To the best of our knowledge, there is no report on stability of AFM1 during production of Iranian traditional kashk (ITK). This study designed to assess the effect of ITK processing on AFM1 content of cow’s milk artificially contaminated with AFM1.Methods: ITK making consisted of production of yogurt and strained yogurt, boiling the strained yogurt to make a curd and drying the resultant curd, according to common native procedure in Iran. AFM1 content of initial yogurt, strained yogurt and dried kashk was determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Statistical analyses were performed by Student’s t–test and ANOVA using the SPSS 16.0 software package program.Results: 'The mean concentration of AFM1 in final ITK was determined as 0.118 µg\kg which was significantly (p0.05) lower than that of initial milk, yogurt and strained yogurt samples. Also, AFM1 content of yogurt, strained yogurt and final ITK product was 46.12%, 6.94% and 48.24%, respectively lower than that of initial milk (p0.05).Conclusion: This study showed that ITK processing can effectively degrade AFM1 presented in initial raw milk and could be useful for minimizing AFM1 content of highly contaminated raw milk in dairy industries.

۹Effect of Zataria multiflora Essential Oil on Histamine Production in Iranian Salted–Fermented Fish Sauce (Mahyaveh)
اطلاعات انتشار: Journal of Food Quality and Hazards Control، سوم،شماره۲، ۲۰۱۶، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۵
Background: Mahyaveh is an Iranian salted–fermented fish sauce which due to its high amount of protein has risk of histamine production. This study was carried out to determine effect of Zataria multiflora Essential Oil (EO) on histamine production in mahyaveh.Methods: Dried anchovies (Stolephorus sp.), refined–salt and mustard seed (Brassica juncea) were purchased from the local market in Bandar Abbas, Iran. Three concentrations of EO including 0.1, 1, and 2% v\w were prepared by hydro–distillation of the air–dried powdered of Z. multiflora plant for 3 h, using British–type Clevenger apparatus. Histamine was determined by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Mean values of histamine were compared using SPSS, Inc, Chicago, IL software (v. 16.0).Results: Most of the samples showed increasing in the level of histamine when storage time was increased. At day 30, histamine level in all treatment samples containing 0.1, 1, and 2% of Z. multiflora EO were significantly lower than control group (p0.05). However, in days 90 and 120, histamine level in all treatment groups had no significant difference (p>0.05) with control ones except 0.1% EO group. Analysis of four sensory items including color, odor, taste, and overall acceptance indicated that there was no significant difference between mean score of control and treatment groups. Overall acceptance scores in 0, 0.1, 1, and 2% EO were 6.33, 5, 6.33, and 5, respectively.Conclusion: Z. multiflora EO could effectively serve as potential antimicrobial agent to inhibit histamine production in mahyaveh.
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