توجه: محتویات این صفحه به صورت خودکار پردازش شده و مقاله‌های نویسندگانی با تشابه اسمی، همگی در بخش یکسان نمایش داده می‌شوند.
۱Priorities for Energy Standards in Iran: A Multi–Criteria Decision Aid (MCDA) Technique
نویسنده(ها): ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: پنجمین همایش ملی انرژی، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۵
Energy is considered to be a key player in the generation of wealth and also a significant component in the economic development. To ensure energy to meet needs for economic growth and sustainable development more emphasis should be given to energy efficiency for both end–use and supply. An effective energy policy in any country should encourage the different enterprises, utilities, and individuals to employ energy efficient processes, technologies, and materials. Energy is produced and consumed with low levels of efficiency in Iran. One of the most important reasons is the absence of mandated energy performance codes and standards. Thus, standardization and labeling are policy towards
energy efficiency. This paper presents an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) based modeling framework for the prioritization of energy standard research projects in Iran. Nine energy sub–sectors are used with hierarchical tree structures. The rank of consumption sub–sector was the first in the order of priority (26%). The research provided a comprehensive framework for performing the prioritization in a scientific and systematic manner. The use of multi–criteria decision aid (MCDA) techniques has a long history in energy projects. One of the major advantages of the use of the AHP approach is that breaks a large problem into smaller ones which enables the decision–maker (DM) to have a better concentration and to make more sound decision. The presented methodology of the research might be beneficial to DMs in other countries.<\div>

۲Subcritical water extraction of essential oils from Zataria multiflora Boiss.
نویسنده(ها): ، ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: پنجمین کنگره بین المللی مهندسی شیمی، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۸
Essential oil of Zataria multiflora Boiss, cultivated in Iran, was extracted by subcritical water extraction (SCWE) and compared with two conventional methods including hydrodistillation and Soxhlet extraction. The extraction efficiencies of different temperatures (100, 125, 150 and 175 o C), mean particle sizes (0.25, 0.50 and 1 mm), and water flow rates (1, 2 and 4 ml\min) were investigated. Separation and identification of the components were carried out by GC–FID and GC–MS. The best operating conditions for the SCWE of Zataria multiflora Boiss. Were determined to be 150 o C temperature, 0.50 mm mean particle size and 2 mL\min flow rate for 150 min extraction time. In this paper, we brought out information about effect of different temperatures on efficiency of the Thymol and Carvacrol. The SCWE method provides a more valuable essential oil (with higher amounts of oxygenated compounds and no significant presence of terpenes).<\div>

۳Modeling and simulation of methane autothermal reforming
نویسنده(ها): ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: پنجمین کنگره بین المللی مهندسی شیمی، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۵
This paper concerns the kinetic and thermodynamic modeling of a methane autothermal reformer (ATR) in tended for synthesis gas or syngas (H2+CO) production. Essentially autothermal reforming is the combination of partial oxidation and adiabatic–steam reforming. Thermodynamic analysis of ATR is based on Gibbs free energy minimization. In this analysis, effect of steam, carbon dioxide and oxygen in feed concentration on the H2 to CO ratio and mole fraction of components have been studied. Effect of temperature and pressure on the product syngas composition and probability of soot formation have been investigated. The results of thermodynamic model were compared with reported data in open literatures. For the kinetic modeling of ATR process, two distinct models for each of the sections of reactor were used. In the partial oxidation section model, a comprehensive kinetic mechanism in presence of 28 species in 108 simultaneous elementary reactions was considered. A two–dimensional kinetic model was developed to simulate the catalytic bed. The model covers all aspects of major chemical kinetics and heat and mass transfer phenomena. The predicted temperature and composition by the proposed model have been verified with published pilot plant scale data.<\div>

۴Experimental investigation of biodiesel from castor oil: production and kinetics mechanism
نویسنده(ها): ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: پنجمین کنگره بین المللی مهندسی شیمی، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۷
Castor oil as a feedstock is relatively cheaper than other oils, which has a great potential for methyl ester (biodiesel) production and fossil fuel replacement. Because of presence of Ricinoleic acid (with reactive groups) it can be used in industrial applications. In this paper, first, the effect of type of catalyst on biodiesel yield was investigated and then effect of four parameters such as: catalyst concentration, Methanol\Oil molar ratio, temperature and mixing intensity on yield of biodiesel has been studied. After determination of the best conditions, this reaction take placed again and some samples in various times were taken and characterized by GC (Gas Chromatography). Also, the kinetics of the castor oil methanolysis process was studied. A mathematical model was developed from a proposed kinetic mechanism. The proposed model equation is essential for predicting the rate of methanolysis of castor oil in a batch or a continuous reactor and for determining the optimal conditions for biodiesel production.<\div>
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