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۱Evaluation and Genetic Diversity of Three Selected White Sapote (Casimiroa edulis) Clones under Semi–Arid Climate
نویسنده(ها): ، ، ، ، ، ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: World Applied Sciences Journal، بيست و دوم،شماره۴، ۲۰۱۳، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۶
Three selected white sapote (Casimiroa edulis) clones (El–1, El–2 and El–3) derived from seedlings were grown under Sohag condition during 2009–2011 seasons at El–Kawther region and were evaluated for fruiting characteristics and their genetic diversity via SDS–PAGE. The full bloom, harvesting date and number of fruiting days (from full bloom to harvest) was earliest in El–3 clone and the latest in El– . The highest average fruit yield\tree occurred in El–1 clone followed by El–2, then E1–3. All the studied clones were characterized by alternate bearing. As for fruit quality (fruit weight, flesh \ fruit weight, seed's weight, number of seeds \ fruit, TSS, acidity, TSS \ Acid ratio, protein and fatty content), the highest values were found in El–1 clone, while the lowest occurred in El–2. Genetic diversity, viz., the number of polypeptides was 32 with their molecular weights ranging between 150 and 8 KDa. The SDS–PAGE protein patterns of the three clones showed distinct changes in eight protein bands. Generally El–1 genotype surpassed the other white sapote clones in the fruit yield and quality and had the latest harvesting date.

۲Quality of Novel Healthy Processed Cheese Analogue Enhanced with Marine Microalgae Chlorella vulgaris Biomass
نویسنده(ها): ، ، ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: World Applied Sciences Journal، بيست و سوم،شماره۷، ۲۰۱۳، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۱۲
Cheese analogue (Ch A) is processed cheese–like product, a nutritious food, can be healthy and attractive when redesigned to be prepared with the addition of a natural ingredient, being Chlorella vulgaris. This microalga is recognized as a rich source of protein, fatty acids, fiber and ash. C. vulgaris also represents a valuable source of essential vitamins and minerals. Chlorella has health benefits, as assisting disorders such as gastric ulcers, wounds, constipation, anemia, hypertension, have immune–modulating and anticancer properties and is a promising ingredient in the food industries. Cheese analogue (Ch A) treatments were enriched with C. vulgaris (1, 2 and 3%) and evaluated for chemical, physical and sensory properties, within three months of cold storage. Chlorella biomass cheeses were richer in the protein, carbohydrates and fiber contents than control samples. On the other hand, addition of Chlorella biomass to the cheese gave products more firmness and gives a stronger network and leads to lower oil separation and meltability values than control. The sensory evaluation indicated that addition of 2% C.vulgaris in Ch A did not have any effect on the overall acceptability of Ch A and in the same time introduced a new healthy alternative Ch A for a healthier lifestyle.

۳Effect of Chlorine on Noroviruses, Rotaviruses and Hepatitis E Virus in Drinking Water
اطلاعات انتشار: World Applied Sciences Journal، سي و دوم،شماره۱۱، ۲۰۱۴، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۷
In the present study human norovirus genogroups I and II (GGI and GGII), Hepatitis E virus (HEV) and human and animal rotaviruses (Wa strain and simian rotavirus), were exposed to different chlorine concentrations in inoculated Nile water and drinking water samples. In raw water samples inoculated separately with viruses before autoclaving, the chlorine dose 5mg\l for 15 min was sufficient to remove 1 log10 from the initial doses of norovirus GGI and GGII and HEV, while sample inoculated after autoclaving, the chlorine dose 5mg\l for 15 min was sufficient to remove 2 log10 from the initial doses of norovirus GGI and GGII and HEV. While in drinking water samples, the chlorine dose 3 mg\l for 15 min was sufficient to remove 4 log10 from the initial dose of norovirus GGI and GGII and HEV. When we increased the chlorine dose to mg\l, 6 log10 reduction of norovirus GGI while 7 log10 reduction from norovirus GGII and 6 log10 reduction of HEV was observed. Both human and animal Rotavirus are more resistant to chlorine in drinking water where only 3 log10 reduction under 3mg\l for 15 min was observed and 5 log10 reduction was observed under exposure to 4mg\l for 15 min.

۴Prevalence of Human and Animal Rotaviruses and HEV in Egyptian Nile Water Resources
اطلاعات انتشار: World Applied Sciences Journal، سي و دوم،شماره۱۱، ۲۰۱۴، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۱۱
The frequency of human and animal rotaviruses and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) in Nile water (inlets) and drinking water (outlets) of traditional water treatment plant (WTP, Meet Kames) and two small water treatment plants (compact units, Shoha and Mahalet Damana) in Nile Delta of Egypt (El–Dakahlia Governorate) was investigated. The efficiency of traditional water treatment plant and compact units in the removal of human and bovine rotaviruses and HEV was also compared. Using RT–PCR, the frequency of rotavirus in water samples collected from Meet Khames water treatment plant was 41.7% (10\24) and 29.2% 7\24) in raw Nile water and after final chlorine (drinking water), respectively. At the same time, the frequency of rotavirus was 20.8% (5\24), 16.7% (4\24) and 20.8% (5\24) and 4.2% (1\24) in raw Nile water and after final chlorine (drinking water), of the two compact units (Shoha and Mahalet Damana) respectively. The frequency of human and bovine rotavirus strains in the positive samples was compared. From the other hand, the capability of different studied WTPs to remove human and bovine rotavirus strains was also compared. Low prevalence of HEV and high prevalence of rotaviruses in water samples was observed. The most frequent rotavirus combination with human origin found was P[4]G1, followed by P[8]G1 and both P[4]G3, P[8]G3 and P[6]G1 in equal percentages. The only detected rotavirus combination with animal origin was P[11]G10.

۵Characterization and Evaluation of Some Mung Bean Genotypes for Salt Tolerance
اطلاعات انتشار: World Applied Sciences Journal، سي و سوم،شماره۳، ۲۰۱۵، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۱۱
Total seed storage proteins extracted from 21 mung bean genotypes were separated using SodiumDodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE). Seed storage proteins resolved thirty three protein polypeptide bands of diverse molecular weights ranging from 171 to 14 kDa. The 21 genotypes were grouped into three clusters depending on percent of homology. A total of 17 genotypes were grouped together in the frest cluster. This group of genotypes showed 100% homology when compared with each other. The second, other three genotypes, 10, 13 and 14 (numbers of genotypes) were also similar in seed protein profiles when compared with each other. These groups of genotypes showed 97% homology with the first group. The third cluster consisted of one genotype L19 which revealed high variations in terms of band number staining and molecular weight, the band thickness and sharpness exceptionally with genotype number 19 wasobserved when compared to other genotypes of tested mung bean. This genotype showed 24% homology with genotypes of the other clusters. The results depicted a low genetic diversity in the tested germplasm of the Egyptian origin (L1 to L11) compared with Indian origin (L12 to L21) based on seed storage proteins. Also the hydroponic experiments were used to study salt stress on the different genotypes of Vigna radiata (mung bean) plants in complete randomized block design with reliable growth and physiological characteristics. The results showed that different genotypes of mung bean exhibited distinct and significant response during screening for salt tolerance at seedling growth stage, under different salinity stress levels by NaCl treatment. The tolerant genotypes showed less reduction in length, Fresh and dry weight of shoot and root, membranestability, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b contents, under high salinity level (200 mM NaCl) with respect to control plants. However, the susceptible genotypes showed greater reduction in the measured parameters under salinity stress. On the basis low and best performance of growth, physiological and biochemical of each genotypes under high salinity levels, total 6 genotypes L1, L13, L17, L18, L19 and L21 were selected from the studied genotypes and which will be screened further for the identification of most salt tolerant and susceptible genotypes to be used in breeding for the genetic improvement of mung bean for salt stress tolerance.

۶Bioassay of Egyptian Propolis on Toxocara vitulorum Adult Worms
نویسنده(ها): ، ، ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: World Applied Sciences Journal، سي و چهارم،شماره۳، ۲۰۱۶، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۷
Indiscriminate uses of chemical anthelmintics have resulted in the establishment of resistant parasites. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the antiparasitic effect of Egyptian propolis ethanolic extract –as an alternative used drug– on adult Toxocara vitulorumin vitro. Adult worms were incubated for 24 h. in different concentrations of the extract (100, 50, 25, 12 and 6 mg\ml). The extract revealed anthelmintic efficacy and the mortality rate was concentration dependant. LC , LC and LC were 6.9, 12.5 and 53.4 mg\ml, respectively. 25 50 90 The mode of action of propolis ethanolic extract on adult worms was assessed bylight and scanning electron microscopy following 24 h. incubation. The disintegration of hypodermis, disorganization of muscle layers and retraction of lips, cuticle damage and distortion of excretory pore were detected and confirmed the nematicidal effect of Egyptian propolis. The overall findings of the current study confirmed effective and natural anthelmintic alternative to the more expensive drugs could be developed using Egyptian propolis.

۷Electrochemical Investigation of Antibacterial Laser Dye Compound in 1,2–Dichloroethane at a Platinum Electrode
نویسنده(ها): ، ، ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (IJCCE)، سي و يكم،شماره۳(پياپي ۶۳)، ۲۰۱۲، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۱۰
Diolefinic antibacterial laser dye namely 1,4–Bis[2–(4–Pyridyl) Vinyl] Benzene (4PVB) have been investigated electrochemically using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, convolution and deconvolution voltammetry combined with digital simulation techniques at a platinum electrode in 0.1 mol \ L Tetra Butyl Ammonium Perchlorate (TBAP) in solvent 1,2–dichloroethane. The diolefinic species were reduced by consuming two sequential electrons to form radical anion and dianion. The second electron transfer was followed by chemical step i.e the electrode reaction proceed as EEC scheme. In scanning the potential to positive direction, the diolefinic laser dye compound was oxidized by loss of one electron, which was followed by a fast chemical process ( isomerization or association). The pathway of electrode reaction and the electrochemical parameters of the investigated compound were discussed & determined using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry techniques. The extracted electrochemical parameters were verified and confirmed via digital simulation and convolutive voltammetry methods.

۸Electrochemical Investigation of Antibacterial Laser Dye Compound in 1,2–Dichloroethane at a Platinum Electrode
نویسنده(ها): ، ، ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (IJCCE)، سي و يكم،شماره۳(پياپي ۶۳)، ۲۰۱۲، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۱۰
Diolefinic antibacterial laser dye namely 1,4–Bis[2–(4–Pyridyl) Vinyl] Benzene (4PVB) have been investigated electrochemically using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, convolution and deconvolution voltammetry combined with digital simulation techniques at a platinum electrode in 0.1 mol \ L Tetra Butyl Ammonium Perchlorate (TBAP) in solvent 1,2–dichloroethane. The diolefinic species were reduced by consuming two sequential electrons to form radical anion and dianion. The second electron transfer was followed by chemical step i.e the electrode reaction proceed as EEC scheme. In scanning the potential to positive direction, the diolefinic laser dye compound was oxidized by loss of one electron, which was followed by a fast chemical process ( isomerization or association). The pathway of electrode reaction and the electrochemical parameters of the investigated compound were discussed & determined using cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry techniques. The extracted electrochemical parameters were verified and confirmed via digital simulation and convolutive voltammetry methods.

۹Efficacy of Ozone to Reduce Fungal Spoilage and Aflatoxin Contamination in Peanuts
اطلاعات انتشار: Journal of Nuts، دوم،شماره۴، ۲۰۱۱، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۱۴
Peanuts (Arachis hypogea L.) are important substrates for the growth and subsequent aflatoxin production by different members of Aspergillus. The aims of the current study were to identify the toxigenic fungi associated with peanut and to study the effect of ozone gaseous (O3) on fungal spoilage and aflatoxin concentration in peanuts. Peanut samples were collected from three Egyptian governorates i.e. Sharkia, Cairo and Ismailia during winter season of 2007. Peanut samples were exposed to O3 at doses of 20 ppm for 5 min, 40 ppm for 10 min and 50 ppm for 5 min. Total fungal counts were estimated in ozonated and non–ozonated peanuts shells and seeds using tow different media and aflatoxin concentration was determined in the ozone treated and non–treated peanuts. The results indicated that all the shell and seed samples were infected with fungi and the samples from Sharkia were the most infected while contained the highest total fungal counts followed by the samples collected from Cairo governorate. Aspergillus flavus was isolated from all seed samples but did not isolated from peanut shells. Exposure to O3 gaseous was effective to reduce total fungal counts in a dose dependent manner and succeeded to eliminate A. flavus in seed samples. All seed samples were contaminated with aflatoxin and O3 at 40 ppm for 10 min succeeded to degrade aflatoxin in peanut seeds to reach the maximum level set in the Egyptian standards regulation.

۱۰Effect of Dietary Omega–3 to Omega–6 Ratio on Growth Performance, Immune Response, Carcass Traits and Meat Fatty Acids Profile of Broiler Chickens
نویسنده(ها): ، ، ، ، ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: Poultry Science Journal، دوم،شماره۲، ۲۰۱۴، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۲۴
This experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary n–3 to n–6 ratio on performance, immune response, blood parameters and fatty acids profile of broiler chickens. A total number of 192 one day old broiler chicks were randomly alloctted into 6 groups. Chicks of groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were fed balanced corn–soybean diets containing n–3 to n–6 ratios of 1:1, 1:3, 1:5, 1:7, 1:9 and 1:11, respectively. Different n–3 to n–6 ratioes had no significant effect on growth performance parameters. The best dressing percentage was recorded in group 3 while no significant difference was noticed in the weight of organs except for a significant increase in the weight of gizzard in group 4. There was a variable effect of the n–3 to n–6 ratio on parameters of innate immunity. The highest lymphocyte percentage was detected in group 5. Antibody titers against Newcastle disease (ND) and Avian Influenza (AI) increased in wider ratio groups. The lowest glucose level was detected in group 4. Though serum albumin and total protein were decreased in group 3, serum globulin increased in groups 2 and 3. The lowest cholesterol content of breast meat was detected in group 3 and the highest content was detected in group 6. The cholesterol content of the thigh recorded opposite results. Narrow dietary n–3 to n–6 groups tended to record higher n–3 PUFA content especially DHA in breast meat. While wider n–3 to n–6 ratio groups tended to deposit more SFA, MUFA and n–6 PUFA than the narrower ratio groups. The best n–3 to n–6 ratio of breast meat was recorded in group 2 receiving dietary n–3 to n–6 ratio of 1:3. From the results of this study, it could be concluded that the dietary n–3 to n–6 ratio had no significant effect on growth performance of broiler chickens. The best dressing percentage was detected in group with the ratio of 1:5. The ratio of 1:3 recorded the best health state parameters.

۱۱Effect of Dietary Omega–3 to Omega–6 Ratio on Growth Performance, Immune Response, Carcass Traits and Meat Fatty Acids Profile of Broiler Chickens
نویسنده(ها): ، ، ، ، ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: Poultry Science Journal، دوم،شماره۲، ۲۰۱۴، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۲۴
This experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary n–3 to n–6 ratio on performance, immune response, blood parameters and fatty acids profile of broiler chickens. A total number of 192 one day old broiler chicks were randomly alloctted into 6 groups. Chicks of groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were fed balanced corn–soybean diets containing n–3 to n–6 ratios of 1:1, 1:3, 1:5, 1:7, 1:9 and 1:11, respectively. Different n–3 to n–6 ratioes had no significant effect on growth performance parameters. The best dressing percentage was recorded in group 3 while no significant difference was noticed in the weight of organs except for a significant increase in the weight of gizzard in group 4. There was a variable effect of the n–3 to n–6 ratio on parameters of innate immunity. The highest lymphocyte percentage was detected in group 5. Antibody titers against Newcastle disease (ND) and Avian Influenza (AI) increased in wider ratio groups. The lowest glucose level was detected in group 4. Though serum albumin and total protein were decreased in group 3, serum globulin increased in groups 2 and 3. The lowest cholesterol content of breast meat was detected in group 3 and the highest content was detected in group 6. The cholesterol content of the thigh recorded opposite results. Narrow dietary n–3 to n–6 groups tended to record higher n–3 PUFA content especially DHA in breast meat. While wider n–3 to n–6 ratio groups tended to deposit more SFA, MUFA and n–6 PUFA than the narrower ratio groups. The best n–3 to n–6 ratio of breast meat was recorded in group 2 receiving dietary n–3 to n–6 ratio of 1:3. From the results of this study, it could be concluded that the dietary n–3 to n–6 ratio had no significant effect on growth performance of broiler chickens. The best dressing percentage was detected in group with the ratio of 1:5. The ratio of 1:3 recorded the best health state parameters.

۱۲Effect of Dietary Omega–3 to Omega–6 Ratio on Growth Performance, Immune Response, Carcass Traits and Meat Fatty Acids Profile of Broiler Chickens
نویسنده(ها): ، ، ، ، ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: Poultry Science Journal، دوم،شماره۲، ۲۰۱۴، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۲۴
This experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary n–3 to n–6 ratio on performance, immune response, blood parameters and fatty acids profile of broiler chickens. A total number of 192 one day old broiler chicks were randomly alloctted into 6 groups. Chicks of groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were fed balanced corn–soybean diets containing n–3 to n–6 ratios of 1:1, 1:3, 1:5, 1:7, 1:9 and 1:11, respectively. Different n–3 to n–6 ratioes had no significant effect on growth performance parameters. The best dressing percentage was recorded in group 3 while no significant difference was noticed in the weight of organs except for a significant increase in the weight of gizzard in group 4. There was a variable effect of the n–3 to n–6 ratio on parameters of innate immunity. The highest lymphocyte percentage was detected in group 5. Antibody titers against Newcastle disease (ND) and Avian Influenza (AI) increased in wider ratio groups. The lowest glucose level was detected in group 4. Though serum albumin and total protein were decreased in group 3, serum globulin increased in groups 2 and 3. The lowest cholesterol content of breast meat was detected in group 3 and the highest content was detected in group 6. The cholesterol content of the thigh recorded opposite results. Narrow dietary n–3 to n–6 groups tended to record higher n–3 PUFA content especially DHA in breast meat. While wider n–3 to n–6 ratio groups tended to deposit more SFA, MUFA and n–6 PUFA than the narrower ratio groups. The best n–3 to n–6 ratio of breast meat was recorded in group 2 receiving dietary n–3 to n–6 ratio of 1:3. From the results of this study, it could be concluded that the dietary n–3 to n–6 ratio had no significant effect on growth performance of broiler chickens. The best dressing percentage was detected in group with the ratio of 1:5. The ratio of 1:3 recorded the best health state parameters.
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