مقالههای Elena Gennadievna Maslennikova
توجه: محتویات این صفحه به صورت خودکار پردازش شده و مقالههای نویسندگانی با تشابه اسمی، همگی در بخش یکسان نمایش داده میشوند.
۱The Formation of Intercultural Competence as an Integral Part of Professional Training in the Field of Tourism
اطلاعات انتشار: World Applied Sciences Journal، سي ام،شماره۱، ۲۰۱۴، سال ۰
تعداد صفحات: ۲
The basic knowledge of intercultural communication is extremely necessary for the specialists working in the industry of tourism,which includes a huge set of various companies both Russia–based and based abroad. All cultures are different, so it is necessary to be able to adapt to these cultures, to live in this complex world of diverse cultures, to learn foreign languages, foreign cultures – this ensures effective business cooperation, success and prosperity. Every nation considers itself the best, the most intelligent and the most adequate. Everything that is native is always approved of and clear,and everything foreign is incredulous and even irritating. Hence, communication barriers, mistrust, contradictions and conflicts arise. A great role in intercultural communication belongs to stereotypes, which fix national characteristic features through jokes and anecdotes. However, it is necessary to study the world’s greatest world cultures; to penetrate the culture through the language in order to understand that stereotypes do not allow of any insight into people’s mentality. One should treat stereotypes with caution, otherwise, they can play a cruel trick. Today the content, the structure, the issues and the problems of formation and development of communicative and intercultural competence are actively studied by the Russian and Western sciences. The issues and problems concerning the formation and the development of communicative competence are also viewed in connection with a number of language disciplines included in the higher education curriculum; among them are «The Russian language and the culture of speech», «Fundamentals of speech communication», «The Russian language in professional communication», «Business Communication» and «Rhetoric», whose aim is to guide the students to masterspecific knowledge, skills and abilities in the areas of social interaction. At the same time in the process of training students in business communication with foreign partners, it is necessary to draw heavily upon both domestic and western models of world cultures and algorithms in order to achieve mutual understanding. Special attention should be paid to business negotiations with foreign partners. In the process of preparation and negotiation it is also important to pay special attention to the national characteristics and cultural differences. People of different cultures negotiate in different ways. That is why, first of all, cultural differences and contradictions are usually revealed in negotiations. The parties to negotiations must take into consideration the communicative situation – the time, the place of communication, the formality and informality of the situation, the identity of the interlocutor: age, sex, nationality, education level and social status. Besides, it is necessary to accumulate information about the interlocutor with the help of not only verbal analysis (by means of speech), but also nonverbal (by means of gestures, mimics, poses, eye contact, etc.) means of communication and to show openness, sincerity and a desire to be engaged in dialogue. There is a set of tactics World Appl. Sci. J., 30 (Management, Economics, Technology & Tourism): 41–42, 2014 42 which are routinely used by business people; however, there are no common recipes or strategy to be followed. At the same time it is necessary to observe decorum – the external decency: not to demonstratenegative emotions towards the interlocutor or his \ her actions, however improper or irritating you may find them to be.Playing by the general rules, it is important to focus on inter–ethnic peculiarities and differences. Currently, ethnic heterogeneity of student groups has become the norm for the Russian higher education institutions. The relationship between fellow students is a model for future contacts and the search for mutual understanding between people of different world cultures.
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