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۱Nutritive Value of Ensiled Mangrove Leaves by Lactobacillus plantarum I. Fermentation Characteristics and Chemical Composition
اطلاعات انتشار: World Applied Sciences Journal، بيست و هشتم،شماره۴، ۲۰۱۳، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۱۰
The aim of this study was to obtain a qualitative and quantitative determination of chemical constituents of Avicenna marina leaves and its nutritive value during ensiling process. Avicenna marina leaves of Mangrove plant were fermented after inoculation with Lactobacillus plantarum using nylon bags technique. Samples were tested at zero time up to 75 days for fermentation characteristics and changes in chemical composition. Inoculation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) plus addition of molasses and\or urea improved fermentative characteristics of mangrove silage. No great change in number of L. plantarum growth during the first week was occurred, after which the counts of lactic acid bacteria increased rapidly during the fermentation process, while the counts of other native microflora decreased periodically. A progressive increase in total sugars, crude protein, fat and lactic acid content reached5.8, 14.0, 9.3 and 6.5%, respectively, withmolasses as an additive. On other hand, pH value was decreased to 4.2, which supports the ensiling process. Cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin contents decreased from 19.0, 15.8, 31.0 to 14.5, 10.4 and 14.2%, respectively. At the end of six weeks of ensiling period, the scanning electron microscope revealed that there was tissues degradation and laceration. Thus, during ensiling of fresh A. marina leaves, it was found that supplementation of lactic acid bacteria (1x106\g) with 4% molasses showed the best results concerning fermentation characteristics, nutritive value and chemical composition of silage. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reported the nutritive value of Mangrove leaves for silage production.

۲Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activity of Mangrove Leaves (Avicenna marina and Rhizophora stylosa) Against Some Pathogens
اطلاعات انتشار: World Applied Sciences Journal، بيست و نهم،شماره۴، ۲۰۱۴، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۸
Finding natural antimicrobial compounds with minimum side effects on health is important due to increasing numbers of antibiotic–resistant strains. Mangrove plants have extensively been used in medicinal fields. In the present study, four extracts from Avicenna marina and Rhizophora stylosaleaves were prepared using water and different solvents including: ethyl acetate, ethyl ether and ethanol. Antimicrobial activities were tested against some antibiotic–resistant and pathogenic bacterial and fungal species. Ethyl acetate showed the best results as inhibition zones. Leaf extracts of R. stylosa showed inhibition zones ranged from 11–19 mm, while A. marina showed 11–20 mm, against most of the tested microorganisms. Results showed also that, the greatest effect was towards Escherichia coli and the lowest was against Candida albicans. The qualitative phytochemical analysis revealed that, extracts of mature leaves contained tanines, flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids as well as steroids, phenolic flavonoids and Cardiac glycosides. The present study reported the great effect of A. marina and R. stylosa extracts against some of most important human, plant and animal pathogens.

۳Hyper Production of Glucoamylase by Aspergillus oryzae FK–923 under Solid State Fermentation
اطلاعات انتشار: World Applied Sciences Journal، سي ام،شماره۱۱، ۲۰۱۴، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۱۵
Glucoamylase production has been investigated by solid–state fermentation of corn flour by Aspergillus oryzae FK–923. Highest glucoamylase production (5582.4 μmoles of glucose produced per minute per gram of dry fermented substrate) was observed on corn flour supplemented with30% (w\w) wheat bran, 1% soluble starch, 0.1% (w\w) urea pH 5.5, 60 % (v\w) initial moisture and 30°C after incubation for 72 hrs using 0.2M phosphate buffer as eluting solvent. Ammonium sulfate 80% (w\w) saturation could recovered 76.4% from total enzyme activity of crude enzyme extract involved in 36.8% of total protein precipitated, rising the specific activity from126.30 U\mg protein present in crude enzyme solution to 262.2 U\mg protein present in ammonium sulfate precipitate. Optimum enzyme activity was observed at 55°C and pH 5.5. Enzyme was applied for hydrolyzing 25 % w\v slurry of potato starchy waste resulting 86% saccharification. Enzymatic hydrolyzate 20% glucose was utilized for bioethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae F–727 yielded 11.4% v\v ethanol and 12gl 1 dry yeast biomass. S. cerevisiae F–707 was grown on enzymatic hydolyzate for baker''s yeast production giving 0.42 g\g utilized glucose. The residual mixture contained unutilized medium and fungal biomass was 42% from original weight was analyzed, showed increase in organic matter (OM) crude protein(CP), ether extract (EE) and dietary crude fiber (CF) from 96.98, 9.81, 3.10 and 7.61% to 98.11, 18.45, 10.13 and 27.07% respectively. On the other hand a decrease was seen in both ash and hemicellulose from 4.01 and 17.54% to 1.89 and12.59%, respectively. The gross energy was increased from 454 to 485 Kcal\100g DM. Enzymes assay showed that the residual fermented substrate loaded with glucoamylase 556, alpha amylase 216, xylanase 224 and celullases (FPase 36 and CMCase 28) U\g. and can be used as concentrates feed for cattle and poultry as a source of protein, energy and feed fortification.
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