توجه: محتویات این صفحه به صورت خودکار پردازش شده و مقاله‌های نویسندگانی با تشابه اسمی، همگی در بخش یکسان نمایش داده می‌شوند.
۱GRADIENT PROJECTION METHOD IN OPTIMAL POWER FLOW
نویسنده(ها): ،
اطلاعات انتشار: هشتمین کنفرانس بین المللی برق، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۱۰
Optimal power flow is an inherently nonlinear constrained optimization problem. The paper described the application of the Gradient projection Method (GPM) to the nonlinearly optimal reactive power flow problems. the formulation with its inherent properties of generalized gradient principles provides an analytical technique to adjust both state and control variables at every iterations satisfying the constraints.
The Gradient Projection Method first introduced by the authores [1], in 1989 to the optimal power flow problems considering the nonlinear properties of the constraints with some initial results. In this paper GPM was used for the optimal pwer flow (OPF) solution of a number of practical and standard IEEE systems The results were compared to the well established Reduced Gradient Technique (RGT) to find generalized effectiveness of the GPM in OPF solution. Attempt was also made to improve the computational manipulation of the technique by using the decoupling principle.<\div>

۲Risk Evaluation of Brick Kiln Smoke to Acacia arabica (انگلیسی)
نویسنده(ها): ، ، ، ، ، ، ، ، ، ، ، ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: مجله علوم محيطي خزر، چهارم،شماره۱، ۲۰۰۶، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۸
Risk analysis is an important technique to estimate impacts on the environment for adopting effective measures to avoid risks. This field study was conducted to investigate the risk of brick kiln (BK) smoke on the shoots of Acacia arabica. Different phenotypic parameters including morphology and growth of shoots and epidermal imprints of the leaves were studied in the vicinity of a brick kiln situated 500 meters away from Lahore–Raiwind Road، Lahore، Pakistan. Results show that smoke exposure has posed differential effects on shoots i.e. some shoots of same tree remained normal، others died and still others were badly affected by the smoke. Moreover، the number of leaves and fresh weight in the smoke affected shoots significantly reduced as compared with normal ones. The study of the epidermal imprints of the leaves of these normal and smoke effected shoots revealed that the mean values of the stomatal size of both adaxial and abaxial surfaces of the normal and smoke effected leaves were not statistically significant. However، the number of stomata on both epidermal layers of smoke effected leaves was significantly reduced as compared with normal ones. This study showed that due to the exposure to BK smoke، the growth of Acacia arabica trees in the field was significantly suppressed.
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