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۱Effects of extract and essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. on TNBS–induced colitis in rats
نویسنده(ها): ، ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences، ششم،شماره۱(پياپي ۱۱)، ۲۰۱۱، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۱۰
Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Family Lamiaceae) popularly named rosemary, is a common household plant grown around the world, including Iran. Rosemary aerial parts are used as flavoring agent in foods, beverages, and cosmetic preparations and have various traditional uses in ethnomedicine including: analgesic, anti–inflammatory, anti–rheumatic, spasmolytic, carminative and choleretic applications. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of rosemary leaves hydroalcoholic extract (RHE) and essential oil (REO) in a well–defined model of experimental colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in rats. Different doses of RHE (100, 200 and 400 mg\kg) and REO (100, 200 and 400 ml\kg) were administered orally and intraperitoneally (100, 400 mg\kg and 100, 400 ml\kg) to male Wistar rats (n=6), 6 h after colitis induction and continued for 5 days by intracolonic instillation of 0.25 ml TNBS (80 mg\kg)\ethanol 50% v\v. Wet colon weight\length ratio was measured and tissue damage scores as well as indices of colitis were evaluated both macroscopically and histopathologically. RHE and REO at all test doses used were effective to reduce colon tissue lesions and colitis indices while greater doses were significantly effective to diminish histopathologic parameters irrespective to the route of administration. Administration of oral prednisolone, Asacol® (mesalazine microgranules) and parenteral hydrocortisone acetate were effective to reduce colon tissue injures as well. These data suggest that RHE and REO are both effective to possess anti–colitic activity, and reinforce the use of this plant as a remedy for inflammatory bowel diseases in traditional medicine.

۲Validation and optimization of experimental colitis induction in rats using 2, 4, 6–trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid
اطلاعات انتشار: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences، هفتم،شماره۳(پياپي ۱۵)، ۲۰۱۲، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۱۲
Trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)–induced colitis is one of the most common methods for studying inflammatory bowel disease in animal models. Several factors may, however, affect its reproducibility, rate of animal mortality, and macroscopic and histopathological outcomes. Our aim was to validate the main contributing factors to this method and compare the effects of different reference drugs upon remission of resultant colon injuries. TNBS was dissolved in 0.25 ml of ethanol (50% v\v) and instilled (25, 50, 100 and 150 mg\kg) intracolonically to the male Wistar rats. After determination of optimum dose of TNBS in male rats and assessment of this dose in female rats, they were treated with reference drugs including dexamethasone [1 mg\kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.) and 2 mg\kg, orally (p.o.)], Asacol (mesalazine, 100 mg\kg, p.o.; 150 mg\kg, enema) and hydrocortisone acetate (20 mg\kg, i.p.; 20 mg\kg, enema) which started 2 h after colitis induction and continued daily for 6 consecutive days. Thereafter, macroscopic and microscopic parameters and clinical features were assessed and compared in different groups. We found that the optimum dose of TNBS for the reproducibility of colonic damage with the least mortality rate was 50 mg\kg. Amongst studied reference drugs, hydrocortisone acetate (i.p.), dexamethasone (i.p. and p.o.) and Asacol (p.o.) significantly diminished the severity of macroscopic and microscopic injuries and could be considered effective for experimental colitis studies in rats. Our findings suggest that optimization of TNBS dose is essential for induction of colitis under the laboratory conditions; and gender exerts no impact upon macroscopic and histological characteristics of TNBS–induced colitis in rats. Furthermore, the enema forms of hydrocortisone and Asacol are not appropriate reference drugs.
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