توجه: محتویات این صفحه به صورت خودکار پردازش شده و مقالههای نویسندگانی با تشابه اسمی، همگی در بخش یکسان نمایش داده میشوند.
۱Rhizobacteria for reduced fertilizer inputs in wheat (Triticum aestivum spp. vulgare) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) on Aridisols in Turkey
اطلاعات انتشار: International Journal of Plant Production، هشتم،شماره۲(پياپي ۲۸)، Apr ۲۰۱۴، سال ۰
تعداد صفحات: ۲۰
The present study assessed the effect of seed inoculation with single or multiple plant growth–promoting rhizobacterial (PGPR) strains on yield in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum spp. vulgare var. Kırık) and barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Tokak) plants in both greenhouse and field conditions during the years 2007 and 2008. The treatments of wheat and barley plants during the first year included: (1) Control (no inoculation and no fertilizer), (2) Bacillus OSU–142 (B.OSU–142), (3) Bacillus megaterium M3 (B. megaterium M3), (4) Azospirillum brasilense Sp.245 (A. brasilense Sp.245), (5) Mixed 1 (B.OSU–142 + Bacillus M3 + Azospirillum AB–245), (6) Bacillus megaterium RC07 (B. megaterium RC07), (7) Paenibacillus polymyxa RC05, (8) Bacillus licheniformis RC08, (9) mineral nitrogen N1 (80 kg N ha–1) and (10) N2 (40 kg N ha–1 in the form of urea). In the second year treatments were: (1) Raoutella terrigena (R. Terrigena), (2) Burkholderia cepacia FS Tur (B. cepacia FS Tur), (3) B. OSU–142 ARM, (4) B. M3 ARM, (5) A. sp.245 ARM, (6) P. polymyxa RC14, (7) B. megaterium RC10, (8) Mixed 2 (Bacillus OSU–142+ Bacillus M3+ Azospirillum brasilense sp.245 + 40 kg N ha) in addition to the first year treatments. Greenhouse and the two years of field trials at two sites showed that seed inoculation with bacterial strains significantly affected yield, yield components and quality parameters both in spring wheat and barley. In greenhouse trials, single inoculations of seeds with PGPRs gave root and shoot weight increases by 11.0–16.5% and 14.4–30.4% in wheat and by 10.3–18.8% and 11.9–21.5% in barley. Combinations of three bacteria increased root and shoots weight by 18.3–31.5% in wheat and by 21.4–23.8 in barley and bacterial inoculations also increased grain yield by 4.3–18.5% in wheat and 8.3–19.1% in barley, respectively. In field conditions wheat grain yields were increased by 25.6–40.4%, 17.4–25.2% and 31.4% while barley seed yield were increased by 16.2–33.7%, 4.2–14.4 and 16.8% with N fertilizer, single and combinations of PGPR bacteria inoculations compared to control. Plant–growth responses were variable and depended on the inoculants strain, plant species and growth parameters evaluated. In conclusion, seed inoculations with bacteria especially B. OSU–142, A. brasilense sp.245 and combinations of bacteria may satisfy nitrogen requirements of wheat and barley under green house and field conditions even in lowland and upland areas. The present results indicate that the selected bacterial isolates and multiple combinations did promote the growth and quality of wheat and barley in ways that could be harnessed to practical benefit for the farmer and consistent with sustainable and\or organic agricultural practices in Turkey.
نویسنده(ها): N.S. Bascinar *، A. M. Gozler، C. &Ş، ، ahin، &Ç، ، . Eruz، L. Tolun، E. Agirbas، M. Mantikci، S. Serdar، B. Verep
اطلاعات انتشار: IRANIAN JOURNAL OF FISHERIES SCIENCES، سيزدهم،شماره۳، Jul ۲۰۱۴، سال ۰
تعداد صفحات: ۲۰
The present study was conducted to examine the impact of cage aquaculture on benthic communities in coastal areas (depth 25 to 50 m) from fish farming operations located along the southeastern Black Sea (Ordu–Perşembe, Trabzon–Yomra and Rize central). Sampling was conducted seasonally from April 2007 to 2009. Sediment samples were taken using Ekman Grab (box core– 0.04 m2). Temperature, salinity, and water velocity were periodically measured to determine influencing sedimentary organic matter in the sediment, oxygenation, and anoxic conditions. In addition, grain size of sediment, organic carbon content, and distribution of benthic communities were investigated. In order to determine benthic impact of fish farms on the region, Shannon – Wiener diversity index (H’), AMBI (AZTI Marine Biotic Index) and M–AMBI (Multivariate– Marine Biotic Index) indices were used. Results of current study showed that benthic zone ecological quality of stations with number 01, 02, 03, and 04 at Ordu–Perşembefish–farming habitat was found to be very low. In autumn 2008, there were 3 species which belonged to Capitella capitata (844 individuals\m2), Capitella sp. (133 individuals\m2), and Heteromastus filliformis (311 individuals\m2) at OP–01 station. In addition, the impact of Trabzon–Yomra fish–farming activity on benthic communities was low. The degree of exposure for Rize fish–farming area in all seasons was quite low, which was not a significant negative impact.
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