توجه: محتویات این صفحه به صورت خودکار پردازش شده و مقاله‌های نویسندگانی با تشابه اسمی، همگی در بخش یکسان نمایش داده می‌شوند.
۱Spatial Modeling of Air Pollution in Urban Areas Applying Fuzzy–AHP Method; a case study of Tehran, Iran
اطلاعات انتشار: کنفرانس بین المللی توسعه پایدار، راهکارها و چالش ها با محوریت کشاورزی ، منابع طبیعی، محیط زیست و گردشگری، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۱۴
This paper aimed at evaluating current mapping air pollution severity of Tehran, capital of Iran, to form a basis of decision making for air quality enhancement. This city is continually challenging with air pollution problems, originating from huge population, abundant industries surrounded the city, absorption of considerable commuters, and topographic barriers. To achieve the above mentioned goal, fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (Fuzzy–AHP) was employed in this paper by considering the tropospheric ozone (O3), nitrogen monoxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) as the main pollutants influencing the study area of the research. In this regard, selected pollutants were extended to entire area by means of inverse distance weighting (IDW) method, and then were classified respect to the health concern degrees provided by air quality index (AQI). In this stage, experts’ ranking on the obtained maps allows the Fuzzy–AHP method to compute weight of each AQI class to reconstruct the criteria maps through an overlay process. Expert rankings and Fuzzy–AHP weight allocation involved again to specify contribution of the pollutants to obtain overall air pollution map by the weighted overlay process. Obtained results confirmed that the selected part of Tehran is facing crucial air pollution putting health of the city residents in danger, as well as unsavory climate change and habitat fall, unless adequate plans are applied. The Southern part of the study area resulted in higher pollution rate which is congruous with population distribution, industrial and green space structures’ placement, urban structure and inhabitant’s literacy as discussed in the paper.<\div>

۲Urban Land Use Compatibilities Evaluation Using An Artificial Neural Network Approximator In Micro–Scale
اطلاعات انتشار: اولین کنگره بین المللی افق های جدید در معماری و شهرسازی، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۱۱
Since the world is rapidly urbanized and urban areas are dealing with enormous changes in utilizing the land, a seamless land use control planning in micro–scale is crucial to prevent incongruous land developement. In this regard, this paper focused on determining the compatibility of parcels in 12th region of Tehran municipality, i.e., one of the oldest and the most populated regions of Tehran, using an artificial neural network approximator. Land use types were divided into 6 types, including: residential, medical, park, religious, educational, and industrial. For each parcel, an effective neighbourhood considered and the percent of whole neighborhood area that occupied by each land use type was calculated. 30 experts point of views were asked on this data to define the degree of compatibility for 250 parcel samples by 1,2,3,4, and 5, corresponded with high compatibility, moderate compatibility, Neutral compatibility, moderate incompatibility and high incompatibility, respectively. Then this data has been formed and fed to the designed multilayer neural network approximator with 10 neurons in one hidden layer and Levenberg–Marquardt backpropagation training algorithm. According to the resulted compatibility map, just 3 percent of this region determined to have a high compatibility with the urban area, where 71%, 8% ,7% and 11% of this region achieved the degree of compatibility of 2,3,4 and 5, respectively. Most of the parcels that fall into the entirely residential area had a moderate compatibility, and higher degree of incompatibility was resulted by the industrial and educational land uses. The results showed that the current situation of land uses is not in accordance with living standards in urban environment. Negligible amount of parcels with high degree of compatibility shows the need for long–time plans to mitigate related land concerns in this region. In this regard, some unpleasent landuses such as industrial land uses should move to vicinty of the city and replace with facilities, sport, and green spaces to mitigate harmful effects on the living population.<\div>
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