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۱An Experimental Investigation on Oxidative Desulfurization of Gas Condensate
نویسنده(ها): ، ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: چهاردهمین همایش بین المللی نفت، گاز و پتروشیمی، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۹
Envirinmental regulations for fossil fuels are becoming more and more severe. Sulfur compounds are among the main contaminats in petroleum and a significant portion of these compounds are transferred to fuels during the refining process. In order to produce low sulfur fuels or ultra low sulfur fuels , hydro – desulfurization is a method commonly used but this conventional process has inherent some difficulties. among recent advanes on non–hydrogenenation desulfurization processes , oxidative desulfurization is more attractive in some reasons . operating at lower temperature and pressure , inexpensive catalysts and chemicals and also , lower operating and investment costs, cause to increase study on this new method. in this research work to achieve the optimized parameters , experimental investigation is done on both oxidation and extraction steps. at the first step oxidation , oxidant to condensate ratio , type and amount of the catalyst, oxidation time and the effect of an absorbent accompanied by catalyst have been studied at the second step extration , several extraction solvents and their purities have been tested. according to the experimental results optimum parameters are achieved for maximum desulfurization of the condensate feed.<\div>

۲Experimental Study and 3D CFD Simulation of Different Catalyst Loading Effects on Trickle Bed Reactors Hydrodynamics
نویسنده(ها): ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: سومین کنفرانس ملی کاربرد CFD در صنایع شیمیایی، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۱۲
Single–phase pressure drop has been studied in a range of flow rates that is of particular interest to trickle bed reactors. Bed is packed with industrial trilobe and cylindrical catalysts with 1mm diameter and 4.2 mm length and 1.6 mm diameter and 3.7 mm length respectively. Particles were packed random close or dense packing (RCP) and random loose packing (RLP). The Bed bulk porosities have been obtained 0.43 and 0.47 for RCP and RLP for trilobe and 0.44 and 0.48 for cylindrical respectively. In this study a CFD model based on Eulerian–Eulerian approach has been developed and User Define Functions are prepared for accurately predict the inter phase momentum exchange and radial porosity distribution on reactor. The two fluid model which developed by Attou & Ferschneider has been used for inter phase momentum exchange in momentum balance equation. An experimental set up is also providing for validation of CFD results. The CFD results had very good agreement with experimental data of this work for trickle bed reactor. Also it is shown that the pressure drop of dense loading is bigger than loose packing. It is found that the trilobe catalyst has generally higher pressure drop than cylindrical catalyst because of more tortuosity.<\div>

۳Investigation of flow Maldistribution in Trickle Bed Reactors Dense and Sock Loading Beds
نویسنده(ها): ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: هفتمین کنگره ملی مهندسی شیمی، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۱۱
Liquid mal–distribution in catalytic Trickle bed reactor have investigated using porous alumina extrudate trilobe catalysts. Two different catalyst loading methos (dense and sock) were used toevaluate the performances of the dense and sock loaded bed in terms of liquid spreading. Theexperimental setup has capability for studying the effect of bed height on distribution of the liquid for different gas and liquid flow rates. A collector device with seven compartments has been usedin bottom of the reactor to investigate the liquid radial distribution. Furthermore, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm has been applied to predict the effective parameters on liquid spreading in trickle bed using the obtained experimental data. was concluded that with same liquiddistributor and operating conditions, the sock packed beds distribute liquid better than dense ones.It was explaind that these results are due to the Isotropic distribution of porosity in sock loaded beds in comparison with dense beds. It was observed that any increase in gas and liquid flow rate enhances the liquid flow distribution; however, the effect of liquid flow rate is more considerable.<\div>

۴Different Approaches for CFD Simulation of Gas–Liquid Two Phase Flow through the Trickle–Bed Reactors
نویسنده(ها): ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: هفتمین کنگره ملی مهندسی شیمی، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۸
In this study hydrodynamics of gas–liquid downward flow through the trickle bed reactor have been investigated by CFD simulation. The catalysts that are used in this bed are industrial trilobe type. Unsteady state 2D simulations have been performed based on Eulerian–Eulerian approach.Governing equations are solved by finite volume method for all computational domain and solving view point is changed from three phase to two phase, so that interfacial forces are considered as source terms. First–order UPWIND differencing method was used for discretization of convectionterms and the SIMPLE method was applied for solution of the pressure velocity coupled equations. The CFD results show appropriate agreement with experimental data. Furthermore, the computational time reduces considerably respect to three phase approach. In addition, the effects of porosity function and tortuosity have been investigated.<\div>
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