۱چگونگی تشکیل اقیانوس های بازالتی ماه: همرفتی ناشی از برخورد شهاب سنگی و تولید مذاب در جبه ماه
اطلاعات انتشار: دوازدهمین کنفرانس ژئوفیزیک، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۴
We present impact–induced convection models in the Moon that explain the formation of lunar mare basalt, and the long duration of the basaltic flow. A large projectile that produces an Imbrium–size impact basin can induce three stage of melting at different depths. The first occurs near the surface, by strong heating of the projectile and target that results in melting and vaporization of the major part of the projectile and near–surface part of the target. This rapid melting does not create mare basalt. The second melting arises from the sudden reduction of the pressure in the upper mantle due to excavation of the basin. The ascending upper mantle material in the process of isostatic adjustment in response to the excavation partially melts by decompression within less than a few Myr after the impact. The possible related volcanism cannot explain basaltic flow on the Moon that lasted about ٨٠٠ Myr. The local impact–induced perturbations, however, trigger global–scale convection, and a large plume from lower mantle ascends directly beneath the impact basin. This convection causes the third stage of melting in the mantle and produces well over ١٠٧ km٣ of mare basalt that give rise to substantial mare flooding. We investigate the effects of an impact on the thermal evolution of the Moon and melt production in the mantle, using convection calculations in an axi–symmetric cylindrical coordinate system. The models have temperature–dependent viscosity, and time dependent heat sources arising from decay of radioactive materials. The mantle is allowed to melt as it crosses the solidus temperature and partial melting is calculated. We consider two different models, permeable and impermeable. Five different viscosity models are examined, where the ratio between the viscosity at the surface and at the bottom of the computation domain is ١٠٠, ٥٠٠, ١٠٠٠, ١٥٠٠ and ٢٠٠٠, respectively. The permeable model with viscosity contrast of ١٠٠٠ can explain the observed amount of basaltic flow as well as the duration of the volcanic eruption.

۲Climatic Changes and Variability in Punjab State, North–West, India Sukhdev Singh Hundal, Prabhjyot–Kaur, Nozar Ghahreman
اطلاعات انتشار: اولین کارگاه مشترک ایران و کره در مدلسازی اقلیم، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۷
Historical weather data for the past 30 years were analyzed from different locations (Amritsar, Jalandhar, Ludhiana, Patiala and Bathinda) in Punjab (India) for changes and variability in temperatures and rainfall. Besides annual trends, two distinct crop growth seasons namely kharfseason (May to October) and rabi season (November to April) were also characterized for seasonal trends. Analysis of data on a nnual as well as seasonal basis revealed changes in temperature and rainfall in this northwest part of India. The rainfall exhibited high standard deviation and coefficient of variation indicating large variations at all the stations. However, the rainfall has invariably shown an increasing trend at all the locations (Ludhiana: 10.5 inmlyear; Patiala: 12.3 mm\year; Jalandhar: 11.3 mdyear and Bathinda: 16.8 midyear). The maximum and minimum temperatures exhibited small standard deviation and coefficient of variation at all stations indicating minor variations in temperatures. The maximum temperatures have generally decreased and the magnitude of decrease also varied with the location (Amritsar: 0.03 OC\year; Ludhiana: 0.02 'Clyear; Bathinda: 0.06 'Clyear). On the contrary, the minimum temperatures have generally increased, and the magnitude of increase varied with the location (Ludhiana: 0.07 'Clyear; Patiala: 0.02 OC\year; Bathinda: 0.02 "Clyear).<\div>

۳Impact of Climate Change Scenarios on Growth and Yield of Wheat and Rice in Punjab, India
اطلاعات انتشار: اولین کارگاه مشترک ایران و کره در مدلسازی اقلیم، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۹
Potential impacts of climate change on agricultural crop production in a region can be predicted using dynamic crop growth simulation models. The present study was undertaken to assess impact of changes in temperature (maximum and minimum) and solar radiation and CO2 on wheat and rice crops under non–limiting water (assured irrigation) and nitrogen availability. Dynamic crop growth simulation models CERES–Rice for rice and CERES–Wheat for wheat were calibrated and validated for use in the study. Historical meteorological data for Ludhiana station for a period of past 30 years was analysed and daily normals for maximum and minimum temperature, solar radiation and rainfall were obtained. Using daily normal weather data, growth and yield of crops were simulated under future probabilistic climate change scenarios expected in the region. In general with an increase in temperature above normal, the phenological development of rabi season wheat was advanced and vice versa but the phenological development of kharif season rice was not significantly affected.
With an increase in temperature unto 1.0 °c above normal the yield of rice and wheat decreased by 3 and 10 0\0, respectively, and with further increase in temperature the yields also revealed a progressive decrease. On the other hand, crop yield increased with an increase in radiation levels above the normal values and vice–versa. The interaction effects of increasing minimum temperature, decreasing maximum temperature or increasing CO2 were also simulated. The growth and yield of crops was adversely affected by increasing minimum temperatures, however, the decreasing maximum temperatures were able to partially counteract this adverse effect only upto a certain limit.
Similarly, the adverse effects of increasing temperature on productivity of rice were also compensated by increasing levels of CO2 up to a certain limiting temperature beyond which further temperature increase had a over–riding negative effect on crop productivity.<\div>

۴The Significant Kurdistan Climate Change
نویسنده(ها):
اطلاعات انتشار: اولین کارگاه مشترک ایران و کره در مدلسازی اقلیم، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۱۰
The Kurdistan province in Iran is situated on the west of Iran at the mid latitudes. The behavior of weather in this region is approximately similar to the subtropical dry regions weather. Its winters are cold and its summers are relatively warm and dry and its rainy season is from OCT. to MAY. But during the recent years a significant change of the weather has been observed. Especially the air temperature and precipitation variation based on statistic values and types have been seen. Also the beginning and the end of season seem to be an anomaly. In my article I attempt first to explain the general conditions of synoptic situation, particularly by investigating the synoptic pressure patterns that affect this region. Then by selecting two weather stations in Sanandaj (40747) and Saghez (40727), the series of temperature and precipitation and of pressure for 45– year period were analyzed quantitatively, and this investigation shows that we have had anomaly in Air temperature and preciqitatinn dllrincthe last 10 v–ears– and also the begnninqand the end of seasons have altered. Especially in winter, the temperature is above the year's average temperature and the type of precipitation has mostly changed from snow to rain as well as sharply in the south of region (Sanandaj) and slowly in the north (Saghez). In the last section of this Article, I try to relate these weather changes to the global climate change by focusing on the weather changes of the Middle East<\div>

۵Time Trend in Mean Annual Temperature of Iran
نویسنده(ها): ،
اطلاعات انتشار: اولین کارگاه مشترک ایران و کره در مدلسازی اقلیم، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۱۰
Many researches around the world have indicated the gradual increase in mean annual temperature. Yet there are some reports on reduction of this parameter, In this research we investigated the long time trend of mean annual temperature in 34 synoptic stations of Iran (2 stations in Cool humid climate, 14 stations in Temperate humid climate, 11 stations in Steppe climate, and 7 stations in Desert climate–based on the Koppen climatic division) with a minimum record of 30 years by minimum square error and also Man–Kendall methods (Wald–Wolfowitz method was not in harmony with these two ones). Result showed that for the whole time horizon of data, there was a positive trend in 59% of stations, while 41% of
stations had negative trend. Considering significance level resulted into 3 zones of positive, negative, and without trend for mean annual temperature in Iran. However, it was hard to define a specific spatial scheme for such a division. By an another approach, we proceeded with a common time period of 1968–1998 for all stations, In this case, 68% of stations showed a positive trend, while the other 32% followed a negative trend. There were some shifts for one trend direction to another one for some of the stations of the study, yet with no welldefined spatial structure. In this case and at 50\0 level of significance, 44, 15, and 41 percentages of the stations possessed positive, negative, and without trend for the parameter under study, respectively. In general the behavior was different for different climates and no specific pattern was found. By the result, one may hypothesize that, in future, more regions will experience higher temperature values. Despite that some stations did not show significant
trends, yet their positive trends may be a clue for future warming. This finding was verified through four recent years of 1999–2002. All of the stations showed higher average mean annual tel11perature, as was compared with average of corresponding to the common period of 1968–98.<\div>

۶The Choice of Convection Schemes for Simulating Precipitation and Near Surface Air Temperature over Iran
نویسنده(ها): ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: اولین کارگاه مشترک ایران و کره در مدلسازی اقلیم، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۴
El–aluating the choice of the different convection schemas in RegCM inodel and the impact of this selection on simulated precipitation and near surface air temperature over Iran is studied. CRU observational data is selected for comparison with simulated data.<\div>

۷NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION ON THE EFFECTS OF ALTITUDE ON THERMAL CONTROL OF A SMALL SATELLITE
نویسنده(ها): ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: سیزدهمین کنفرانس سالانه مهندسی مکانیک، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۷
Satellite Thermal Control is responsible for keeping all the elements in a safe temperature range. Orbit altitude is one of the most important parameters on orbital heat rate received by the external surfaces of a satellite. Also the altitude of a satellite orbit has an effect on determining the orbit period (the time spent for one revolution of the satellite around the earth). By increasing the orbit altitude, satellite period increases too.
For a given beta angle, the time of satellite remaining in eclipse depends on the orbit altitude and decreases as the altitude increases. The model includes a small communication satellite with fast spine. Only components and elements that from thermal control point of view are important have been included in the model and analysis. Geometrical and thermal mathematical models of satellite have been built by the use of Thermal
Desktop and SINDA\FLUINT soft ware.
In this paper transient heat transfer and temperature distributions respectively of a small satellite model in four different LEO (low earth orbits) orbits in with altitudes of 700, 900, 1000, 1500 kilometers respectively analyzed and presented. The effects of orbit altitude variations on absorbed orbital heating rates (earth infrared radiation, Albedo, solar radiation) by external surfaces of satellite are analyzed. The temperature
distribution of elements and surfaces are calculated. According to the results obtained, increasing the satellite altitude decreases the absorbed orbital heating rates by the satellite bottom plate so its temperature decreases. There aren’t any considerable changes in absorbed orbital heating rates for satellite top plate and as a result temperature will not change with increasing the altitude. Satellite lateral plates experience different temperature changes due to increasing the altitude (depending on beta angel). The temperature of all internal components will change accordingly.<\div>

۸The Effect of Temperature and Electric Field on the Behavior of Electrorheological Fluids
نویسنده(ها): ،
اطلاعات انتشار: چهاردهمین کنفرانس سالانه مهندسی مکانیک، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۵
An Electrorheological (ER) process occurs when the viscosity of fluid with dispersed particles is modified by the application of an electric field. The Electrorheological flow able dispersed fluids can be currently used for fixing of materials responding to mechanical loads and, as working media for dampers and dielectric actuators.
The present investigation has been undertaken with the aim of studing the parameters that effect on the apparent viscosity of low–concentration ER–fluid (diatomite in transformer oil). Results demonstrate increases in the viscosity by applying electric field. It is shown that the viscosity behavior can be reasonably modeled as a power –low fluid, with the viscosity equal to a consistency index, K, multiplied by the shear rate raised to the power n–1. Results indicate that both the consistency index K and the exponent n are influenced by voltage and temperature, where K has linear and n has exponential relation with temperature. The variation of the apparent viscosity versus temperature can be determined by these relations.<\div>

۹RAREFACTION EFFECTS ON HEAT TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS IN TRAPEZOIDAL MICROCHANNELS
نویسنده(ها): ،
اطلاعات انتشار: پانزدهمین کنفرانس سالانه مهندسی مکانیک، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۷
Slip flow and heat transfer in the entrance region of trapezoidal microchannels are investigated numerically. The effects of Reynolds number, channel aspect ratio, channel side angle and Knudsen number on the simultaneously developing velocity and temperature fields, and on the key flow parameters like the friction coefficient and Nusselt number are examined in detail. In the entrance region, very large reductions are observed in the friction factor and Nusselt number due to rarefaction effects, which also extend to the fully developed region, however at much lower levels. An interesting feature associated with the slip flow regime is the existence of the asymptotic inlet values for the heat transfer and friction coefficients. These asymptotic values strongly depend on the Kn, but independent of the geometry, and Re. In the fully developed region, both parameters are also considerably affected by the degree of rarefaction, the aspect ratio and the side angle. Friction coefficients monotonically decrease with increasing Kn, and aspect ratio, while they increase slightly with increasing side angles. Fully developed heat transfer coefficients also decrease with the increasing Kn. However, as the aspect ratio increases their sensitivity to Kn decreases.<\div>

۱۰TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT CREEP BEHAVIOR OF AN EPOXY COMPOUND AND ITS MODELING
نویسنده(ها):
اطلاعات انتشار: پانزدهمین کنفرانس سالانه مهندسی مکانیک، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۷
Epoxy compounds are thermosetting polymers used as composite matrices or as adhesive materials in various applications like in marine structures. This work is dedicated to the temperature–dependent creep behavior of an epoxy compound which is an important issue in structural design. Isothermal one–day creep experiments are performed at various temperatures ranging from 24.5°C to 175°C (above the glass transition temperature of the compound). Significant creep behavior of the epoxy compound is observed even at room temperature. The tensile creep compliance and the increasing timedependent Poisson’s ratio of the material at different temperatures are rather successfully used to construct
viscoelastic master curves for these material properties. It is observed that the shift factor of the compound cannot be fitted by the known WLF equation. Further, the viscoelastic model of the material is implemented in a finite element program, and the model is verified by means of the results of a creep test that is performed at a non–isothermal condition.<\div>

۱۱THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS AND ENTROPY: A CONCEPTUAL STUDY
نویسنده(ها):
اطلاعات انتشار: پانزدهمین کنفرانس سالانه مهندسی مکانیک، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۶
Most of engineering students do not have a clear idea of both the second law and entropy. What they learn from the standard texts for the second law is that the entropy AF448 of the universe increases during any spontaneous process. This, however is scientifically correct, but too
complex and too jargon. We will see that the second law and entropy are simple and friendly concepts. The second law is based on human experience and is not derived from complicated theories and equations. This paper deals with simple processes that everyone might experience in his daily life and focuses on what is happening in every one of these processes in terms of energy conversion. As a result of this analysis, the
fundamental science behind the second law will be revealed and a lucid picture of the entropy is presented. A summary of qualitative and philosophical aspects of entropy is given and the broad application of entropy to many different disciplines is illustrated.<\div>

۱۲The NM Liquid Density Correlation based on Different Temperature Dependent Terms of Cubic Equations of State
نویسنده(ها): ،
اطلاعات انتشار: نهمین کنگره ملی مهندسی شیمی ایران، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۱۶
The Nasrifar–Moshfeghian (NM) liquid density correlation, in conjugation with the temperature–dependent terms of some cubic equations of state, has been used to predict the saturated liquid densities of pure components. The original temperature–dependent term is the Mathias and Copeman. In this work, the temperature dependence of the attraction terms of SRK, PR, UM, and NM equations of state have been studied. The parameters of the NM correlation, as well as the characteristic parameters of each component, d, have been obtained. For this purpose, the saturated liquid densities of 80 components consisting 2639 data points of parrafins, cyclo–parrafins, olefins, diolefins, cyclic olefins, aromatics, ethers, liquefied inorganic gases, and alcohols have been studied.<\div>

۱۳A New Scaling Equation to determine the effect of the temperature, molecular weight of n–alkane precipitants and solvent to oil ratio on asphaltene deposition for an Iranian Oil Reservoir
نویسنده(ها): ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: یازدهمین کنگره ملی مهندسی شیمی ایران، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۸
Asphaltene flocculation, precipitation and deposition is a considerable problem in the oil industry especially within reservoir, in the production facilities and in general, in both upstream and downstream petroleum operations. The major goals of this research were to investigate the effect of different factors such as temperature, solvent\oil ratio, and molecular weight of solvent on the asphaltene deposition for an Iranian oil reservoir. The previous works are discussed and a new modified temperature–dependent scaling equation is introduced. The results showed that all experimental data for scaling equation and new temperature–dependent scaling equation collapsed onto a same curve. The scaling representation of the data also implies a universal property for the onset of precipitation.<\div>

۱۴Investigation of Temperature Effect on the Asphaltene Deposition for Two Iranian Oil Reservoirs
نویسنده(ها): ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: اولین کنگره مهندسی نفت ایران، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۱۰
رسوبات آسفالتین ترکیباتی دارای قطبیت بسیار بالا و خاصیت چسبندگی قوی می باشند . این رسوبات می توانند به
عنوان مانع جهت حرکت و جریان نفت به سمت دهانه چاه عمل کنند . عواملی که باعث حل شدن و یا رسوبگذاری
آسفالتین می گردند شامل ترکیب نفت خام، فشار، دما و غیره م یباشند.
هدف از این تحقیق بررسی تاثیر دما بر روی رسوب آسفالتین با استفاده از نرمال هپتان بعنوان عامل رسوبگذاری برای
دو نمونه نفت از مخازن نفتی ایران بوده است . در ابتدا تاثیر دما در محدوده ۳ تا ۱۰۰ درجه سانتیگراد برای دو نمونه
نفت در شرایط محیط غیر متخ لل بررسی شده و در ادامه تاثیر دما برای یکی از نمونه ها در شرایط محیط متخلل تعیین
شده است . نتایج بدست آمده نشان می دهد که برای نمونه با افزایش دما مقدار رسوب کاهش یافته است، اما برای
نمونه با افزایش دما، تا دمای ۵۰ درجه سانتیگراد میزان رسوب افزایش یاف ته ولی در ادامه با افزایش دما مقدار رسوب
کاهش یافته است . نتایج حاصل از آزمایشات محیط متخلل نشان می دهد که در دماهای بالاتر مقدار رسوب کاهش
یافته است. همچنین کاهش نفوذپذیری در دمای بالاتر کمتر می باشد.<\div>

۱۵Evaluation the Effects of Overload and Ambient Temperaturein Power Transformer in M.R.E.C
نویسنده(ها): ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: بیست و دومین کنفرانس بین المللی برق، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۹
This paper presents the evaluation of power transformers overloading in transmission and over distribution substations, supervised by MAZANDARAN which is a regional electrical company in Iran. It was found that ambient temperature rise and overload are two important factors in performance of these substations. Rise in electric power consumption increased the power transformer loads by %16.3 during year 2006 in provinces of MAZANDARN. Over loading generates high temperature within the power transformers. The changes in ambient temperature in a single day increase; they follow a sinusoidal pattern in MAZANDARN province. With the increase in climate temperature and overloading, the
process of insulation aging accelerates in power transformers. Using IEC–60354 standards, a r emedy must be found for the climate temperature increase and the overloading of power transformer in MAZANDARAN province. Using FEMLAB a novel cooling system was developed to help
reduce the aging rate of power transformer insulation [9, 19, 20, and 21].<\div>

۱۶A simple view to the lithosphere rheology (Case study, NW–SE Iran)
نویسنده(ها): ، ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: همایش ژئوماتیک 87، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۱۳
The rheology of the lithosphere determines its deformation under given initial and boundary conditions. The rheology of the lithosphere is a function of its composition and structure, pressure, temperature, and state of stress. The concept of strength envelope (rheological profile), firstly developed by Goetze and Evans (1979), is well known (cf. Ranalli, 1995). On the basis of a generalization of experimental results, it is assumed that the deformation regime for any given rock can be subdivided into two domains: brit–tel or frictional, governed by the Coulomb–Navier shear failure criterion, and ductile, governed by the power–law creep equation. The brittle\ductile transition is defined by the equality of frictional strength and ductile strength (for a given strain rate). In this article we review the lithosphere and its behavior by various rheological law based on rock composition, temperature(cold), pressure, with simple numerical model (block in NW–SE Iran) .<\div>

۱۷Impact of Impinging Jets on Moisture Variations of the Iranian Bread
اطلاعات انتشار: شانزدهمین کنفرانس سالانه مهندسی مکانیک، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۶
In this study, bread moisture variation during baking was modeled as a function of baking time, impinging jet velocity and temperature and the bread temperature using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). An experimental impinging jet oven was developed to acquire the data for training and testing of ANN. An online data–acquisition system was developed for data recording. The baking experiences were carried out at oven temperatures of 150, 175, 200, 225 and 250 C ° and five different jet velocities. 625 series of data were acquired. The network of one hidden layer with 8 neurons was able to predict bread moisture during baking reasonably well. This ANN model predicts the bread moisture with MRE of 6.64% and MAE of 1.23 based on testing data. Conducted experiments showed that variation in oven jet temperature strongly affects
the bread moisture, in comparison with little influence of jet velocity on this parameter.<\div>

۱۸Developing a scaling equation as a function of pressure and temperature to determine the amount of asphaltene precipitation
اطلاعات انتشار: پنجمین کنگره بین المللی مهندسی شیمی، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۹
In this study a simple and applicable scaling equation as a function of pressure, temperature, molecular weight, dilution ratio (solvent) and weight percent of precipitated asphaltene has been developed. This equation can be used to determine the weight percent of precipitated asphaltene in the presence of difference precipitants (solvents) and the amount of solvent at onset point. Since increasing the pressure of crude oil decreases the amount of asphaltenes precipitation, the effect of reservoir pressure has been taken into account in developing this equation. The results obtained by using this equation are substantially different and more accurate from other developed scaling equations for asphaltene precipitation. By considering the effect of reservoir pressure in developing the scaling equation and application of a genetic algorithm, the unknown parameters of the scaling equation are simultaneously and without any reservation obtained. The most important application of this unique equation is in the determination of critical point of asphaltene precipitation, known as onset point, and asphaltene precipitation in gas injection operations for enhanced oil recovery. The results predicted using the scaling equations are compared with our experimental and literature precipitation data and it is shown that they are in good agreement with our experimental data.<\div>

۱۹تحولات فازی و رفتار حرارتی ترکیب پیروفسفات کلسیم حاصل از سنتز حرارتی پودرهای هیدروکسی آپاتیت و شیشه های فسفاتی
نویسنده(ها): ، ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: چهاردهمین کنفرانس مهندسی پزشکی ایران، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۶
The aim of this work was to investigate the phase transformations and the sinterability of calcium pyrophosphate (CPP), prepared from a mixture of hydroxyapatite (HA) and phosphate glass. Phase and micro–structural evaluation of the sintered samples as well as physical, chemical and thermal characterization of the starting materials were performed, using inductively coupled plasma (ICP), X–ray diffraction, scanning electron
microscopy (SEM), particle size measurement, simultaneous thermal analysis (STA) and density measurement. The bodies, sintered at low temperature (1000 – 1100 ºC), generated the β–CPP and α–CPP compounds, whereas at high temperature (1200 – 1250 ºC) the α–CPP phase was often identified. The reaction of the calcium methaphosphate and the HA particles appeared to be continuous and finished before the calcium methaphosphate melting.

۲۰Factors Influencing In Vitro Flowering from Styles of Saffron
نویسنده(ها): ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: دومین سمپوزیوم بین المللی تکنولوژی و بیولوژی زعفران، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۶
This paper refers to the factors affecting in vitro flowering as follows in turn: the important factor was explants age according to style length, the second was culture condition containing temperature and light, the third was growth regulator. Style incised from 55–70 mm length floral buds with light blue perianths as explants cultured on media regulated with 26.8 µM 1–naphthaleneacetic acid and 31.1 µM 6–Benzylaminopurine in the dark at 20 ℃ was optimal condition for in vitro flowering induced, the induction ratio was 37.5–40.0 %. As for growth regulator only, the higher 6–BA\NAA in the dark at 20 ℃ was beneficial to in vitro flowering induced.<\div>

۲۱Development of Measurement Methods for the Main Parameters of the Iranian Bread Baking Process in the Impinging Jet Medium
اطلاعات انتشار: یازدهمین کنفرانس دینامیک شاره ها، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۷
In this study, an experimental impinging jet oven equipped with an online data–acquisition system was developed to study and then improve the bread baking throughout the country. The fully transient nature of the baking process makes the simultaneous measurement of the baking parameters necessary, which was neglected at previous studies on bread baking in Iran. Thus, the required hardware and software, written by Borland Delphi®, were developed to measure and record the data throughout the baking experiences. Furthermore, this oven is characterized by the high quality control mechanisms employed. So the fluctuations of oven temperature and jet velocity were constricted down using electronic circuits and controllers leading to an increase in testing repeatability and measurement accuracy. The weight and temperature change of the bread during baking were measured and recorded showing pretty good agreement with previous experimental results.<\div>

۲۲MHD\EHD Gravity Flow of Molten Glass through Inclined Rectangular Duct with Temperature–Dependent Properties
نویسنده(ها): ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: یازدهمین کنفرانس دینامیک شاره ها، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۹
Laminar gravity flow of a highly viscous molten glass is studied in a non–isothermal inclined rectangular duct assuming that the fluid is transferring significant heat to the surroundings. It is assumed that the fluid is subject to an external electrical field in order to control its rate of cooling. An external magnetic field will also be applied simultaneously in order to enhance the flow rate through the rise of the Lorentz force. The analysis involves fluid physical properties to be temperature–dependent. The coupled set of momentum and energy equations is simplified using the creeping flow approximation. A one–dimensional approach will also be used to further simplify the analysis. The governing equations so obtained will be solved numerically using DVODE scheme. Numerical results are presented for average velocity and temperature variation along the duct for different values of the wall heat loss, heat diffusion, electric field intensity, and magnetic field intensity. The results suggest that, depending on the physical properties of the melt, bifurcation may occur over a range of Lorentz parameter. That is, the solutions to the momentum and energy equations are found to be multi–valued for certain combination of parameters. This nonlinear behavior is shown to have resulted from the interaction which exists between the velocity and temperature fields on the one hand and the temperature–dependent material properties on the other hand. Compared with circular ducts, for a given cross–sectional area, rectangular ducts deliver less flow but they provide us with a better control on the temperature variation along the duct.<\div>

۲۳Effect of different parameter on the synthesis of nanozeolite Na–Y, Review
اطلاعات انتشار: همایش بین المللی ژئولیت ایران، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۱۳
It has been recognized that several synthesis parameters affect the crystallization routes and kinetics in
zeolites syntheses .This study indicates that how the aging time, hydrothermal reaction temperature
,inorganic and organic cations( pH and content of cation) affect significantly the final phases when Na–Y are
synthesized in the presence of TMA+. Also a method for the preparation of colloidal zeolite Y in high yields
is presented. Sodium was added to a colloidal zeolite Y synthesis mixture at varying times during the
synthesis to increase the Na2O\Al2O3 ratio to levels that normally favour the crystallization of zeolite A. A
two–stage varying–temperature synthesis method was used to determine the nucleation period of colloidal
zeolite Y. Nanocrystalline zeolite Y, were synthesized in high yield by periodically removing nanocrystals
from the synthesis solution and recycling the unused reagents, including the template and T–atom sources.<\div>

۲۴Noble Gas Influence on Temperature of Pulsating Micro–Bubble
نویسنده(ها): ، ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: دوازدهمین کنفرانس دینامیک شاره ها، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۵
Single micro–bubble sonoluminescence occurs when an acoustically trapped and periodically pulsating micro–bubble collapses so strongly that the energy focusing at collapse leads to light emission. A lot of research efforts devoted to sonoluminescence (SL) are in the continuum limit. Recently, there has been rise in molecular dynamic trend in investigating this phenomenon due to failure of conventional methods in describing the whole SL process. Conventional works report strong relation between the presence of noble gases in the micro–bubble and its behavior, e.g. bubble temperature. In this work, Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method (DSMC) is utilized to study the dependence of temperature of micro–bubble on the noble gas content of microbubble while the effect of water vapor is neglected. Internal behavior of Sonoluminescing single micro–bubble filled with noble gas is modeled as a rigid sphere driven by a supersonic collapsing piston. The temperature of micro–bubble increases when noble gas with heavier molecular mass is used. This finding at molecular dynamic level is in concord with the results obtained by their hydrodynamics counterparts.<\div>

۲۵Optimizing the Coating Weight in Iran Khodro Paint Shop
نویسنده(ها):
اطلاعات انتشار: دومین کنفرانس بین المللی رنگ و پوشش خودرویی، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۱۱
Coating weight is a physical property that provides a resistance for corrosion and has direct effect on paint adherence on the bodies. The ability to successfully perform coating weight amount between target values is highly dependent to experts’ skill. In spite of all parameters such as temperature and point of all zones are in their target value, the size of crystal doesn’t harmonize sometimes.
Furthermore it causes an introduction to penetrate corrosion in automotive production and the number of customers claim will be increased. So temperature of phosphate, sheet of body, tensile oil and the way of charging the activation were surveyed carefully. Furthermore on cleaning process more was focused. With each modified samples were prepared to check coating weight and Size of crystal. During the research according the action plan the tests were done and all present results were gathered and analyzed their trends. Finally it’s find that with affecting in times and amount of charging the material the result will be better than before
unexpectedly. One objective is to use comparisons between expert and novice personnel to identify the critical skill components necessary in world competition in automotive industry. The obtainable of this research is what causes would be interfered on increasing or decreasing in coating weight in our paint shop? In the future an advance experiment in dip technology will be used in the other
pretreatment line which has the same problem. This paper will help them which factors need to be more under controlled.<\div>
نمایش نتایج ۱ تا ۲۵ از میان ۵۱۶ نتیجه