توجه: محتویات این صفحه به صورت خودکار پردازش شده و مقاله‌های نویسندگانی با تشابه اسمی، همگی در بخش یکسان نمایش داده می‌شوند.
۱On CFD Modeling of Sediment Transport in Rivers
نویسنده(ها): ،
اطلاعات انتشار: ششمین کنفرانس بین المللی مهندسی عمران، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۸
A computational modeling analysis of the flow and sediment transport, and deposition in meandering river models was performed. The river flow characteristics, including the mean velocity field and the Reynolds stress components are evaluated. The simulation results were compared with the available experimental data of the river model and discussed. The Lagrangian tracking of individual particles was performed, and the transport and deposition of particles of various sizes in the meandering river were analyzed. Particular attention was given to the sedimentation patterns of different size particles in the river–bend model. The flow patterns in a physical river were also studied. A Froude number based scale ratio of 1:100 was used, and the flow patterns in the physical and river models are compared. The result shows that the mean–flow quantities exhibit dynamic similarity, but the turbulence parameters of the physical river are different from the model. More strikingly, the particle sedimentation features in the physical and river models do not obey the expected similarity scaling.<\div>

۲Vibration Control of Structures during Earthquakes with an Optimal Preview Active Control Strategy
نویسنده(ها): ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: ششمین کنفرانس بین المللی مهندسی عمران، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۸
Active vibration control of structure during earthquake is studied. Attention is given to optimal control methodology with and without preview for protection against earthquakes. A three–story building model and El Centro earthquake record is used in the analysis. Acceleration responses of the structure with active vibration control mechanism with and with out preview sensors are evaluated and the results are compared with those for the unprotected building. It is shown that the seismic protection of buildings could be achieved with active vibration control techniques. Using properly designed active control systems can effectively reduce the acceleration transmitted to structures during a major earthquake. It is also shown that the inclusion of the preview sensors in the active control strategy will improve the system performance significantly.Active control methodologies, with and without preview, may also be effectively used for protection of existing vulnerable buildings against earthquake<\div>

۳Computational Modeling of Air Pollution
نویسنده(ها):
اطلاعات انتشار: ششمین کنفرانس بین المللی مهندسی عمران، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۱۰
Computational modeling of pollutant transport, dispersion and deposition is described.Particular attention is given to transport and deposition of contaminant particles in atmospheric flows around buildings, in street canyons and near bridges. The Eulerian–Eulerian and Eulerian–Lagrangian models are outlined. Particular attention was given to the use of advanced anisotropic turbulence models and a Lagrangian particle trajectory analysis. The procedure for simulating the instantaneous turbulence fluctuating velocity vector with the aid of random field model sis described.Examples of dispersion and deposition of pollutants near buildings, in street canyons and near bridges are discussed. It is shown that the computer simulation can predict the features of the experimentally observed pollutant concentration data.<\div>

۴On Passive Vibration Control of Buildings Against Earthquakes
نویسنده(ها):
اطلاعات انتشار: چهارمین کنفرانس بین المللی زلزله شناسی و مهندسی زلزله، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۵
The strategy of passive vibration control of structures for their protection against earthquake is reviewed. Attention is given to the base isolation methodology for earthquake resisting design.Several earlier and recently proposed base isolation devices for seismic protection of buildings are described. It is shown that using properly designed base isolation systems can effectively reduce the acceleration transmitted to compact stiff structures during earthquakes. Examples of responses of multistory buildings with and without base isolation system subject to earthquake excitations are presented. A small–scale experimental setup for testing the performance of rubber bearing isolation system is described. The setup consisted of a three degree–of–freedom structure that was excited at its base with a shaker. The unprotected building response to actual earthquake acceleration was recorded and is compared with that for the structure with the passive isolation system. A scaling procedure was used in the experimentation. Computer simulations were used to evaluate the response of the building model to the earthquake base excitation for the fixed base case and the one with a passive isolation system. The Computer simulation results are compared with the experimental data and reasonable agreement is observed. It is shown that the rubber bearing passive isolation system is highly effective for protecting the building from seismic ground excitation. Furthermore, the scaling procedure is useful for performing small–scale laboratory experiments for seismic response of structures.<\div>

۵Preview Control of Base–Isolated Structures Subject to Earthquake Excitations
نویسنده(ها): ،
اطلاعات انتشار: چهارمین کنفرانس بین المللی زلزله شناسی و مهندسی زلزله، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۸
Active vibration control of base–isolated and fixed–base structures during earthquake is studied.Attention is given to optimal control methodology with and without preview for protection against earthquakes. A three–story building under fixed–base condition and with laminated rubber bearing base isolation system subject to the El Centro 1940 earthquake are analyzed.The responses of structure with passive, active and hybrid vibration control systems are evaluated. Accelerations and displacements responses for active systems with and with out preview sensors for fixed base and base–isolated structures are computed and the results are compared with those for the unprotected building. It is shown that the seismic protection of buildings could be achieved with passive and active vibration control techniques. Properly designed active control systems can effectively reduce the acceleration transmitted to structures during a major earthquake. It is also shown that the inclusion of the preview sensors in the active control strategy improves the system performance considerably. The hybrid use of the laminated rubber bearing isolation system with the active control strategies leads to significant improvement of the structural protection during a seismic event<\div>

۶Numerical Analysis of Arc Welding in High Gravity Condition
نویسنده(ها): ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: سیزدهمین کنفرانس سالانه مهندسی مکانیک، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۷
In this research, GTA welds onto the aluminum alloy 6061 and nickel are investigated at varying levels of gravity (g) using computer simulation techniques. The numerical results are compared with the existing experimental data. Computer simulation in agreement with the experimental data shows that the depth of the melting pool decreases as gravity increases and this trend is more markedly observed for the aluminum weld than for nickel. The velocity in the melting pool increases at higher level of gravity and enhances convection. Numerical simulations also show deeper weld pool penetration compared with the existing results. This observation is justified due to the effect of Coriolis and centrifugal forces on the arc plasma flow and different cooling conditions on the bottom surface of the work piece.<\div>

۷OVERVIEW OF PARTICLE RESUSPENSION PROVESSES iNDOOR AIR POLLUTION
نویسنده(ها):
اطلاعات انتشار: سیزدهمین کنفرانس سالانه مهندسی مکانیک، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۷
An overview of particle removal and re–entrainment under various conditions is presented. A detailed analysis of particle resuspensions in turbulent flow is also performed. The instantaneous fluid velocity field is generated by the direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the Navier–Stokes equation via a pseudospectral method. Particle removal mechanisms in turbulent channel flows are examined and the effects of hydrodynamic forces, torques and the near–wall coherent vorticity are discussed. The particle resuspension rates are evaluated, and the results are compared with the model of Reeks. The particle equation of motion used includes the hydrodynamic, the Brownian, the shear–induced lift and the gravitational forces. An ensemble of particles is used for particle resuspension and the subsequent trajectory analyses. It is found that turbulent near wall vortical structures play an important role on small particle resuspension. Environmental importance of particle resuspension in connection to air pollution in indoor environment is described. It is shown that personal exposure to indoor pollution is orders of magnitude larger than those to outdoor environment.<\div>

۸A MODEL FOR SUPERSONIC IMPACTORS FOR NANO PARTICLES INCLUDING FLOW FIELD SIMULATION IN THE NOZZLE
نویسنده(ها): ،
اطلاعات انتشار: سیزدهمین کنفرانس سالانه مهندسی مکانیک، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۸
In this study the performance of supersonic impactors under various operating conditions is analyzed using a computer simulation model. Axisymmetric forms of the compressible Navier–Stokes and energy equations are solved and the gas flow and thermal condition in the impactor and upstream nozzle are evaluated. A Lagrangian particle trajectory analysis procedure is used and the deposition rates of different size particles under various operating conditions are studied. For dilute particle concentrations, the assumption of one–way interaction is used and the effect of particles on gas flow field is ignored. The importance of drag, Brownian forces on particle motions in supersonic impactors is discussed. It is shown that the Stokes–Cunningham drag with variable correction coefficient is most suitable for computer simulation studies of anoparticles
in supersonic impactors. The computer simulation results are shown to compare favorably with the experimental data. Flowfield results shows that the nozzle effect is limited to short distances downstream of the nozzle and the flowfield would be similar to the case the impactor modeled without the nozzle near to the impactor plate.<\div>

۹COMPUTATIONAL MODELING OF THREE PHASE LIQUID–GAS–SOLID FLOWS
نویسنده(ها): ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: سیزدهمین کنفرانس سالانه مهندسی مکانیک، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۶
An Eulerian–Lagrangian computational model for simulations of gas–liquid–solid flows in three–phase slurry reactors is developed. In this approach, the liquid flow is modeled using a volume–averaged system of governing equations, whereas motions of bubbles and particles are evaluated by Lagrangian trajectory analysis procedure. The two–way interactions between bubble–liquid and particle–liquid are included in the
analysis. The discrete phase equations include drag, lift, buoyancy, and virtual mass forces. Particle–particle interactions and bubble–bubble interactions are accounted for by the hard particle model approach. The bubble coalescence is also included in the model. The predicted results are compared with the experimental data, and good agreement is obtained. The transient flow characteristics of the three–phase flow are studied
and the effects of bubble size on variation of flow characteristics are discussed. The simulations show that the transient characteristics of the three–phase flow in a column are dominated by time–dependent staggered vortices. The bubble plumes move along the S–shape path and exhibit an oscillatory behavior. While particles are mainly located outside the vortices, some bubbles and particles are retained in the vortices. The
bubble size significantly affects the characteristics of the three–phase flows and flows with larger bubbles appear to evolve faster.<\div>

۱۰3–DIMENSIONAL MODELLING OF AIR FLOW AND NANO– AND MICRO–PARTICLE BEAM FOCOUSING IN AN INTEGRATED AERODYNAMIC LENSES
نویسنده(ها): ،
اطلاعات انتشار: چهاردهمین کنفرانس سالانه مهندسی مکانیک، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۸
In this research a 3–dimensional numerical simulation of the airflow and nano– and micro–particle motions in an aerodynamic particle beam focusing system consisting of several lenses, nozzle and the chamber downstream of the nozzle was done. The 3–dimentional compressible airflow and thermal conditions in the aerodynamic lens system were evaluated. The governing equations of the particle motion are solved in a Lagrangian view. The particle equation of motion used included drag, and Brownian and gravity forces. The simulation results were compared with the experimental data. The results showed that for particle diameters less than 30 nm, the Brownian force could significantly affect the beam focusing and particle collection efficiency. Afterward the motion of the nano–particles in this range is 3–dimensional and the assumption of the axi–symmetric particle motions is not valid. The gravity effect, however, was found to be negligibly small and could be neglected in the analysis of nano–particle motions.<\div>

۱۱A NUMERICAL MODEL FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC FORCE OF ARC WELDING IN HIGH GRAVITY CONDITION
اطلاعات انتشار: چهاردهمین کنفرانس سالانه مهندسی مکانیک، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۸
Gas Tungsten Arc welds onto the aluminum and nickel are investigated at varying levels of gravity (g) using A CFD scheme. Axisymmetric forms of continuity, Navier–stokes and energy equations are solved to find the flowfield, temperature distribution and welding pool shape in the work–piece. Having some analytical integral solutions related to Maxwell’s equations in an axis–symmetric system with Magneto–hydrodynamics (MHD) approximation, an accurate description of the electromagnetic force in the welding pool is considered. Comparison of the numerical results with the existing experimental data shows that in agreement with the experimental data the depth of the melting pool decreases as gravity increases but this trend is more markedly observed experimental data. In other word numerical simulations show deeper weld pool penetration compared with the existing results. A dimensional analysis justifies this due to the effect of Coriolis and centrifugal forces on the arc plasma flow which changes the arc pressure and shear stress over the work piece. The velocity in the melting pool increases at higher level of gravity and enhances convection.<\div>

۱۲COMPUTATIONAL MODELING OF CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION IN FRACTURED AND POROUS MEDIA
نویسنده(ها):
اطلاعات انتشار: پانزدهمین کنفرانس سالانه مهندسی مکانیک، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۲۰
In this paper geological sequestration of carbon dioxide were reviewed, and a computational model for analyzing the process of CO2 sequestration is described. Experimental and computational modeling methods for studying multiphase flows in porous and fractured media were studied. The experimental setup of a laboratoryscale flow cell was described in details. It was shown that the gasliquid flows generate fractal interfaces and the viscous and capillary fingering phenomena were discussed. Experimental data concerning the displacement of two immiscible fluids in the lattice–like flow cell were presented. The flow pattern and the residual saturation of the displaced fluid during the displacement were discussed. Numerical simulations results of the experimental flow cell were also presented. Numerical simulation results for single and multiphase flows through rock fractures were also presented. Fracture geometry studied was obtained from a series of CT scan of an actual rock fracture. Computational results showed that the major losses occur in the regions with smallest apertures. An empirical expression for the
fracture friction factor was also described. Applications to CO2 sequestration in underground brine fields depleted oil reservoir stimulation were discussed.<\div>

۱۳COMPUTATIONAL MODELING OF PARTICLE TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION IN HUMAN RESPIRATORY TRACTS
نویسنده(ها):
اطلاعات انتشار: پانزدهمین کنفرانس سالانه مهندسی مکانیک، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۲۲
In this paper computational modeling of particle transport and deposition in human respiratory tracts is reviewed. Airflow pattern in the upper lung and nasal passages are presented. The Lagrangian trajectory analysis procedure is outlined and its application to nanoand micro–particles transport and deposition are discussed. Sample simulation results for particle deposition are presented and are compared with the available experimental data.<\div>

۱۴Direct Numerical Simulation of Gas–Solid Flows in a Turbulent Channel Flow
نویسنده(ها): ،
اطلاعات انتشار: یازدهمین کنفرانس دینامیک شاره ها، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۸
Transport and deposition of aerosols in dilute and dense particle–laden flows is of considerable interest due to its importance in numerous industrial applications. In this study, the direct numerical simulations of gas–solid flows in a turbulent channel flow are analyzed. Particular attention was given to the deposition of particles on the walls. The interaction of turbulent eddies with small particle is discussed. The effect of inter–particle collisions and two–way coupling on the particle deposition velocity in turbulent duct flows is investigated. The time history of the instantaneous turbulent velocity vector was generated by the two–way coupled direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the Navier–Stokes equation via a pseudospectral method. The particle equation of motion takes the Stokes drag, the Saffman lift, and the gravitational forces into account. The effect of particles on the flow is included in the analysis via a feedback force on the grid points. Several simulations for different particle relaxation times, density ratios and mass loadings of the particles were performed, and the effect of inter particle collisions and two–way coupling on the turbulent eddy structure and particle deposition velocity were discussed. It was found that the inter–particle collisions increase the particle deposition velocity.<\div>

۱۵Direct numerical simulation of dense and dilute gas–solid flow
نویسنده(ها): ،
اطلاعات انتشار: هفدهمین کنفرانس سالانه مهندسی مکانیک، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۷
This study was concerned with the effects of particle–particle collisions and two –way coupling on the dispersed and carrier phase turbulence fluctuations in a channel flow the time history of the instantaneous turbulent velocity vector was generated by the two – way coupled direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the navier–stokes equation via a pseudospectral method.<\div>

۱۶OVERVIEW OF PASSIVE, ACTIVE AND HYBRID VIBRATION CONTROL OF STRUCTURES AGAINST EARTHQUAKES
نویسنده(ها):
اطلاعات انتشار: ششمین کنفرانس بین المللی زلزله شناسی و مهندسی زلزله، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۷
Historical development of passive and active vibration control of structures for their protection against earthquake is reviewed. Several base–isolation devices including laminated rubber bearing, and various frictional systems for seismic protection of buildings are described. It is shown that the acceleration transmitted to compact stiff structures during an earthquake can be significantly reduced by using appropriate base–isolation systems. Responses of some generic buildings with and without rubber bearing and frictional base–isolation system subject to different seismic excitations including the El Centro 1940 Earthquake are described and the effectiveness of various isolation system for protecting the structure and structural contents are discussed. Stochastic approach for response analysis of base–isolated structures is also described and several examples are provided. In addition, the recent development on active control of structural vibrations during earthquakes is discussed and the methodology for hybrid seismic control is described. Various control algorithms are presented and discussed. Particular attention is given to the recently developed concept of preview active and hybrid control for seismic protection of structures. Sampleexamples are presented and the potential of the new approach is pointed out.<\div>

۱۷Overview of Two–Phase Flows in Rock Fractures – Application to Carbon Dioxide Sequestration
نویسنده(ها): ،
اطلاعات انتشار: بیستمین کنفرانس سالانه مهندسی مکانیک، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۴
An overview of multiphase flows in rock fractures is presented. Both computational models as well as experimental techniques for multiphase flow analysis are described. Particular attention was given to flows in a sand stone fracture for CT scan is available. Detailed computational and experimental results are presented. The application of the study to carbon sequestration and enhanced oil recovery are also discussed<\div>

۱۸Thermal Plume of a Standing Manikin in a Ventilated Room
اطلاعات انتشار: بیستمین کنفرانس سالانه مهندسی مکانیک، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۴
A computational model was developed to study the the airflow field and particles motion near a heated, standing manikin in a ventilated room with a displacement air distribution system. An Eulerian–Lagrangian approach was used to simulate the airflow field and for evaluation of the trajectories of micro–meter particles. The equation of particle motion that was used included inertial, viscous drag, Saffman lift and gravity forces. The result of airflow field simulation was compared with the experimental data of a heated sitting manikin. The possibility that the particles entering from the ventilation register move into the breathing zone was investigated. The simulation results showed that the thermal plume generated by the temperature gradient adjacent to the body can affect the flow field in the room with displacement ventilation (DV) system and also moves the particles from the inlet register to the breathing zone.<\div>

۱۹CFD Studies of Pressure Drop and Increasing Capacity in Structured Packing
اطلاعات انتشار: بیستمین کنفرانس سالانه مهندسی مکانیک، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۴
Packed columns equipped with structured packings are widely used in separation processes. In this study hydrodynamics of MellapakPlus 752Y was investigated by CFD. This packing includes short smooth bends on both ends of each corrugated sheet. Two adjacent sheets of a whole packing module were considered as computational domain. CFD results indicated that gas phase should be simulated using a turbulent model.Thus, k–ε, k–ω, RNG and BSL turbulent models were evaluated for the gas phase in the CFD model. The best results were achieved using BSL model. Predicted results of dry and wet pressure drops were in a good agreement with the experimental data. Effects of the bends in the structured packing were studied by the validated model. It was found that using bends in the packings is useful for increasing capacity and decreasing pressure drop of the systems. CFD model showed that by inserting a flat sheet between the corrugated sheets, the collisional losses of the gas–gas interactions in crisscross junction are eliminated so that the dry and wet pressure drops decrease significantly in loading region.<\div>

۲۰Computational Modeling of Natural Gas Production From Hydrate Dissociation
نویسنده(ها):
اطلاعات انتشار: دومین همایش ملی هیدرات گازی ایران، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۲۰
This paper provides an overview of computational modeling of hydrate dissociation. A simplified axisymmetric model for natural gas production from the dissociation of methane hydrate in a confined reservoir by a depressurizing well was first described. During the hydrate dissociation, the heat and mass transfer in the reservoir were analyzed, assuming a sharp dissociation front. The system of governing equations was solved by a finite difference scheme, and the distributions of temperature and pressure in the reservoir, as well as the natural gas production from the well were evaluated. The numerical results were compared with those obtained by the linearization method.Hydrate dissociation in a porous sandstone core was then studied using a kinetic model. The ANSYS–FLUENT code was used for analyzing hydrate dissociation in an axisymmetric core. When the core was opened exposing the core to low pressure, the hydrate in the core dissociates and the methane gas and liquid water begin to flow in the pores. A Users' Defined function (UDF) for analyzing hydrate dissociation was developed and included in the FLUENT code. The New UDF used the Kim–Bishnoi kinetic model for hydrate dissociation. Variations of relative permeability of the core were included in the model. Sample simulation results were presented and discussed.<\div>

۲۱Development of a 3D Model for Continuous Bed–Load Saltation Process
اطلاعات انتشار: دهمین کنگره بین المللی مهندسی عمران، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۸
Saltation is the dominant mode of the sediment transport in rivers. The focus of the present study is on the development of an accurate particle saltation model for the range of sand to gravel in the Lagrangian approach. The model includes the non–linear drag force, the shear lift force, Magnus force, the buoyancy force, the added mass force, the Basset history force and torque. A sub–model for the random process of the particle impact and rebound from the channel bed is also included (i.e. particle–bed collision or splash model). The results of the developed model were validated against experimental data. By using the developed model, the mechanism of particle–bed collision was investigated under rough and smooth bed conditions. The results showed that sediment saltations are quickly disappear under horizontal smooth bed surface. Therefore, the consideration of a bed roughness model is essential for the simulation of the continuous bed–load saltation process<\div>

۲۲A 3D Eulerian–Lagrangian Model for the Motion of the Multiple Non–cohesive Sediment Grains in Water
اطلاعات انتشار: دهمین کنگره بین المللی مهندسی عمران، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۷
The numerical simulation of a group of sediment grains is important for the bedload estimation. The present treatise deals with the development of a 3D Eulerian–Lagrangian model by considering the nonlinear drag force, the shear lift force, Magnus force, the buoyancy force, the added mass force, the Basset history force and torque. A sub–model for particle–particle interaction of bed sediment–laden flows is also included. By using the developed model, the effect of particle– particle collision on the trajectories of saltating grains in open–channel flows can be investigated. The analyses of the simulation results indicated that inter–particle collisions introduce several effects on the sediment transport including changing length and height of the sediment saltation and its lateral diffusion. Therefore, the use of such model can increase the accuracy of the bed–load transport estimation.<\div>

۲۳DEVELOPMENT OF A 3D LAGRANGIAN MODEL FOR NUMERICALSIMULATION OF INITIATION OF MOTION OF SEDIMENTPARTICLES
اطلاعات انتشار: یازدهمین همایش بین المللی سواحل، بنادر و سازه های دریایی، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۴
Particle movement will take place when the instantaneous fluid force on a sediment grain isjust larger than the instantaneous resisting force [1]. In order to consider differenthydrodynamic forces which exert on the grain, Newton’s second law can beutilized in aLagrangian perspective<\div>

۲۴Multiphase Flows through Porous and Fractured Geological Media
نویسنده(ها):
اطلاعات انتشار: هفتمین کنفرانس ملی کاربرد CFD در صنایع شیمیایی و نفت، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۱۴
An overview of multiphase flows in porous media and rock fractures is presented. Both computational models as well as experimental techniques for analyzing multiphase flows in geological formations are described. Particular attention was given to gas–liquid flows in subsurface environments. It is shown that the penetration of injected gas into a brine saturated porous media lead to fractal interfaces. The geological formation typically contains many fractures. The procedure for analyzing the flows in fractured rock is discussed. In particular, flows in a sandstone fracture for which a CT scan is available are presented in details. When the porous media is fractured, the simulation results shows that the bulk of the flow is transmitted through the fractures. The effect of matrix permeability on the flow is also studied and simplified models are proposed. Applications of the study to carbon sequestration and oil and gas production are also discussed.<\div>

۲۵Effect of Dispersed Nanoparticles on Thermophysical Properties of Nanofluid and Heat
اطلاعات انتشار: Journal Of Applied Fluid Mechanics، نهم،شماره۳، ۲۰۱۶، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۷
In this investigation, effects of dispersed Cu nanoparticles in water on heat transfer coefficients are studied using Eulerian–Lagranigian approach. Nanoparticles disperse in the fluid due to drag, weight and Brownian forces acting on them. A new particle search algorithm is used to trace the particles in every time step. Thermal coupling between dispersed and carrier phases is done and also thermal and momentum interaction between particles and solid walls are taken onto account to obtain velocity and temperature fields. The specific heat of nanofluid is obtained using conventional models. The results show that regarding thermophysical properties of particles and base fluid, and also other conditions like mass flow rate and particle size, degradation or intensification of heat transfer coefficients can occur.
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