توجه: محتویات این صفحه به صورت خودکار پردازش شده و مقاله‌های نویسندگانی با تشابه اسمی، همگی در بخش یکسان نمایش داده می‌شوند.
۱Farabi's Logico–Linguistic Ideas in Comparison with Theories and Principles in Contemporary Linguistics
نویسنده(ها):
اطلاعات انتشار: دومین کنفرانس ملی تحقیقات کاربردی در مطالعات زبان انگلیسی، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۷
This research is an attempt to make a comparison and contrast between Farabi's logico–linguistic ideas, as an Iranian scientist, philosopher, and logician, with the contemporary linguistic theories and principles. To make this comparison and contrast possible, we would review the most relevant and outstanding contemporary linguistic theories and then compare them with those of Farabi. To our astonishment, we made it clear that Farabi introduced the science of language to the learned people of his time around ten centuries ago long before the introduction of linguistics as a separate branch of human sciences. He enumerated the sciences of his time as (1) the science of language, (2), the science of logic, (3) educational sciences, (4) natural sciences, (5) theology, (6) civil sciences, (7) the science of jurisprudence, and (8) theosophy. The science of language includes further sciences of (1) the science of singular terms, (2) the science of compound terms, (3) the science of the rules of singular terms, (4) the science of the rules of the compound terms, (5) the science of the rules of correct writing, (6) the science of the rules of correct reading, and (7) the science of poetry. It is noteworthy that Farabi's ideas regarding the phenomenon of language bear overwhelming similarities with those of contemporary linguistics. For example, according to Farabi, the science of the rules of singular words, as the third of his seven–category science of language, studies the letters, sounds, and words of a specific language. In the science of the rules of compound terms, as the fourth category, sentences and their components are studied. The ideas and theories he developed in this regard have many things in common with Chomsky's Constituent Grammar. Furthermore, Farabi makes a distinction between the science of syntax and the science of logic and creates a relation between them which reminds us of Chomsky's Universal Grammar including principles and parameters, the Language Acquisition Device, and surface and deep structures. In Farabi's opinion, the science of logic makes three different interpretations of the term logic. According to the first interpretation, logic refers to the external speech which is represented in the form of sounds of a language. That is, the external speech receives phonetic representation. This interpretation is similar to Chomsky's surface structure. In the second interpretation, logic means the soul–centered inner speech, which resembles the deep structure of Chomsky. In the third interpretation, logic is equal to the thinking faculty of the soul which is unique to human beings like Universal Grammar, the Innateness Hypothesis, and the Language Acquisition Device. This paper is thus a description of the above–mentioned ideas, theories, and principles and the elucidation of their similarities and differences with those developed by Farabi.<\div>

۲The Relationship between Reflectivity in Teaching and the Sense of Self– Efficacy among ovice and Experienced Iranian EFL Teachers
نویسنده(ها): ،
اطلاعات انتشار: دومین کنفرانس ملی تحقیقات کاربردی در مطالعات زبان انگلیسی، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۱۰
This study intended to investigate the relationship between Iranian EFL teachers’ reflectivity in teaching and their sense of self–efficacy. Furthermore, the mediating role of teaching experience was taken into account. For the purpose of the study, two questionnaires including a Persian version of reflective teaching questionnaire (Ghadampour, Moradian, & Shokri, 2014) and the long form of teachers’ sense of self–efficacy scale or TSES (Tschannen–Moran & Woolfolk Hoy, 2001) were administrated to both novice and experienced EFL teachers at private language institutes in Khorramabad, Lorestan Province in Iran. The analysis of data through the Pearson Product–Moment correlation signified a statistical relationship between reflective teaching and self–efficacy among Iranian EFL teachers. The results of the further analysis of data demonstrated that the relationship between Iranian EFL teachers’ reflectivity in teaching and their sense of self–efficacy was statistically significant among experienced EFL teachers. In other words, novice EFL teachers under study were less reflective and bore less self–efficacy in their act of teaching in the classroom. The findings of this study imply that EFL teachers should be aware of the positive effects of reflectivity and self–efficacy and do their best to teach as reflectively and efficaciously as possible.<\div>

۳Testing Approaches and Psycholinguistic Processes in Input Modification Studies: A Critical Review
نویسنده(ها): ،
اطلاعات انتشار: دومین کنفرانس ملی تحقیقات کاربردی در مطالعات زبان انگلیسی، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۲۱
Language testing and language teaching are closely interrelated, each influencing the other. Language testing has followed the trends in language teaching, which have, in turn, influenced by theories in linguistics and psychology. The psycholinguistic processes, therefore, in which psychological and linguistic principles are considered as the underlying theoretical assumptions of test construction receive a great importance. On the other hand, input modification studies, including simplification, elaboration, and enhancement, aim to investigate the effect of the types of input modification on enhancing the learners’ comprehension rate. The present study, therefore, intends to critically review testing and assessment approaches and the psycholinguistic processes the input modification studies. This study first overviews the trends of language testing from the beginning to present, and then reviews critically testing and assessment techniques and the psycholinguistic processes employed in some of the most salient studies conducted in the field of input modification. The results of this review showed that language testing in input modification studies mainly goes around discreet–point and integrative testing and does not occur in a natural realistic environment, although there are few exceptions in this regard. These exceptions include debates, thinking aloud, and free recalling the context, which are communicatively oriented. Findings also indicated that among the psychological processes employed in these studies the predominant process was comprehension\production.<\div>

۴The Effects of Collaborative Assessment on Fostering EFL Writing Proficiency: A Sociocultural Perspective
نویسنده(ها): ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: دومین کنفرانس ملی تحقیقات کاربردی در مطالعات زبان انگلیسی، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۲۲
Anchored in Vygotskian sociocultural perspective, this study attempted to investigate the role of collaborative assessment (CA) in developing EFL writing proficiency. To this aim, two intact groups of Iranian intermediate EFL learners were randomly assigned to experimental (n = 15) and control groups (n = 15). Both groups wrote a total of eight essays on eight identical topics, which the first and the last ones were considered as pre– and post–tests. However, in the experimental group, both learners and the teacher assessed the essays based on an analytic scale. Then, being engaged in collaborative dialogue, the learners were given the opportunity to discuss existing differences between their self–assessed scores and those assigned by the teacher in order to reach an agreed score. Moreover, all their dialogic interactions were audio–recorded for later transcription and microanalysis. The control group, however, was merely provided by the teacher’s scores. Results of the study demonstrated that the experimental group significantly outperformed the control group on the post–test. Besides, the micro–analytic analysis of the dialogic discussions in the experimental group portrayed how CA could help the learners gain a better insight into their strengths and weakness; further, it led to their metacognitive awareness about components of a good piece of writing.<\div>

۵The Effect of Group Dynamic Assessment on Raising Young EFL Learners' Metacognitive Awareness and Listening Comprehension
اطلاعات انتشار: سومین کنفرانس بین المللی پژوهشهای کاربردی در مطالعات زبان، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۱۰
Listening has long been the neglected skill in second\foreign language acquisition, research, teaching, and assessment.And managing listening instruction and improving listening comprehension in the classroom are difficult for teachers and EFL learners. In this regard, this study aimed at investigating the effect of group dynamic assessment (G–DA) on Iranian EFL learners' metacognitive listening strategies and listening comprehension. Sixty young EFL listeners were assigned to an experimental and a control group at random. The experimental group (n = 30) was metacognitively instructed based on group dynamic assessment. The students in the control group (n = 30) were orally exposed to the same material without being metacognitively instructed by the same teacher. After ten instructional sessions, a listening comprehension post–test and the metacognitive awareness listening questionnaire (MALQ) were administered to both groups to measure their listening comprehension and metacognitive awareness, respectively. Furthermore, the EFL listeners‟ metacognitive development was assessed by the administration of the by Vandergrift et al. (2006) at the beginning and end of the study. A comparison of pre– and post–test scores of the G–DA group showed that the learners benefited from metacognitive instruction as measured by the listening comprehension test. As well, it was found that the experimental group significantly outperformed the control group on both listening comprehension and MALQ posttests. This development and awareness with the G–DA group can be the result of the quality and quantity of mediation which was in tune with learners‟ ZPDs.<\div>

۶Validating a Reflective Teaching Questionnaire for the Educational System of Iran
اطلاعات انتشار: سومین کنفرانس بین المللی پژوهش های نوین در علوم انسانی، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۸
This research was an attempt to devise a model for Reflective Teaching to be employed by high school teachers in Iran and other countries. Then, the devised model was turned into a questionnaire, including 29 items or questions on the Likert scale to represent the basic principles of reflective teaching. The Reflective Teaching Questionnaire was then validated by the statistical techniques of the exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The subjects of the study were 600 high school teachers teaching at schools in different cities of different provinces in Iran. Also, the high school teachers' awareness and application of reflective teaching were investigated. The exploratory factor analysis was used to determine the constructs behind reflective teaching which were explored to be (1) practical, (2) cognitive, (3) meta–cognitive, (4) learners, (5) critical, and (6) ethical factors. Therefore, it is suggested that the concerned teachers make themselves familiar with the theoretical and practical aspects of reflective teaching and then use it in their classrooms.<\div>
نمایش نتایج ۱ تا ۶ از میان ۶ نتیجه