توجه: محتویات این صفحه به صورت خودکار پردازش شده و مقاله‌های نویسندگانی با تشابه اسمی، همگی در بخش یکسان نمایش داده می‌شوند.
۱A NEW DAMPING MECHANISM IN NON–LINEAR BUBBLE DYNAMICS
نویسنده(ها): ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: سیزدهمین کنفرانس سالانه مهندسی مکانیک، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۶
Non–linear equations of radial motion of a gas bubble in a compressible viscous liquid have been modified considering simultaneous effects of viscosity and compressibility. A new set of equations has been derived including new terms resulted from consideration of viscosity and compressibility not only at the bubble interface, but also in the bulk of liquid. By performing numerical calculations, it is shown that the new terms exhibit an important damping role at the time of bubble collapse, so that their consideration dramatically weakens the bubble rebounds after the collapse.<\div>

۲Stapes Management in Tympanosclerosis
اطلاعات انتشار: Academic Journal of Surgery، اول،شماره۱-۲، ۲۰۱۴، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۵
Background: Stapes management in tympanosclerosis has always been controversial. There are evidences supporting stapes mobilization, but there are concerns regarding refixation and recurrence of conductive hearing loss; therefore, supporting stapedectomy.Methods: In this retrospective study, clinical records, operative notes, and audiologic data of patients with stapes fixation (1994–2011) were analyzed. Audiometric findings are reported according to the recommendations of the Committee on Hearing and Equilibrium 1995 Guidelines for the Evaluation of Results of Treatment of Conductive Hearing Loss.Results: In the present study, 66 patients were enrolled (23 male, 43 female). Stapedectomy and stapes mobilization both had good hearing results (12.1 dB vs. 10.6 dB reduction in ABG) and there was no significant difference. Overall, 63.6% of patients had achieved good results (mobilization: 57.9%, stapedectomy: 71.4%). The difference in success rate between the two groups was not statistically significant.Conclusions: Stapedectomy and mobilization of stapes both seem to be efficacious and safe in the treatment of stapes involvement in tympanosclerosis. The hearing improvement is long lasting in both procedures.

۳A histopathological study of nephrotoxicity, hepatoxicity or testicular toxicity: Which one is the first observation as side effect of Cisplatin–induced toxicity in animal model?
اطلاعات انتشار: Journal of nephropathology، اول،شماره۳، oct ۲۰۱۲، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۴
Background: Cisplatin (CP) is widely used in clinic to treat the solid tumors. However, CP is associated with some major side effects including nephrotoxicity, hepatoxicity, and testicular toxicity.Objectives: To found, which of the toxicities is the first side effect of CP.Materials and Methods: we conducted a pilot research on 12 adult male Wistar rats.Results: One week after CP administration, the induced toxicity was observed clearly in kidney tissue. The only abnormality that observed in testis tissue was very small degree of hyaline casts. However, no damage and other abnormality were detected in the liver tissue.Conclusions: According to these findings, in clinic, first special attention must be made on kidneys during chemotherapy with CP. However, the duration of experiment is suggested to be extended to obtain hepatoxicity or testicular toxicity model in experimental animal in laboratories. Moreover, different dose of CP should be used to study the first side effect in animal model.

۴Black kidney in Albinism
نویسنده(ها): ،
اطلاعات انتشار: Journal of nephropathology، سوم،شماره۲، Apr ۲۰۱۴، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۲
Oculocutaneous albinism may be similar to two related syndromes (Hermansky–Pudlak and Chediak–Higashi) and could lead to more widespread lysosome excretory defects. These defects could lead to accumulation of some intracellular material, leading to the gross discoloration of the kidney.

۵Health Management in Disasters in Iran: A Qualitative Study
اطلاعات انتشار: Health in Emergencies and Disasters Quarterly، اول،شماره۱، Automn ۲۰۱۵، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۱۰
Background: Disaster management relies on the prediction of problems and providing necessary preparations at the right time and place. In this study, researchers intended to explore previous experiences of health disaster management.Materials and Methods: This study conducted using qualitative content analysis method. Participants were selected purposefully and data were collected through interviews, observation, and relevant documents.Results: Transcribed data from 18 interviews, field notes, and other documents were analyzed. In data analysis, “reactive management” was emerged as the main theme. It included some categories such as “exposure shock,” “nondeliberative relief,” “lack of comprehensive health disaster plan,” “lack of preparedness,” and “poor coordination in health service delivery” as well as contextual factors.Conclusion: The results clarified deep perception of participants’ experiences about health management in disasters. The professionals and nonprofessionals’ emotion–based reactions and behaviors, if accompanied with deficiencies in planning and preparedness, can lead to ineffective services and aggravate the damages

۶The Cost analysis of cervical cancer screening services provided by Damavand health center in 2013
نویسنده(ها): ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: Social Determinants of Health، اول،شماره۱، ۲۰۱۵، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۶
Background: Today, the health sector in many countries is facing with severe resource constraints; hence it is absolutely necessary that cost–benefit and cost–effectiveness assessment have a major role in design of health services. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost–benefit and effectiveness of cervical cancer screening service (Pap smear test) done by the health centers in Damavand County in 2013.Methods: This is a descriptive study with cross–sectional method. All data was extracted from existing documents in Damavand health network.Cost of service screening for doing Pap smear test (manpower costs of performing the service, the cost of transferring samples, water, electricity, telephone and gas) was estimated in all health centers then results, were compared with the incomes of this service.Results: Screening program coverage was 22.3%, 6.9% and 6.05% in 2011, 2012 and 2013 respectively. All costs and incomes of units performing Pap smear screening test were calculated. Entire costs and incomes of this service during 2013 were respectively 303,009,000 and 11,640,000 RLS equal $12,227 and $496.73. Therefore, the cost–benefit ratio of this screening test was approximately 0.040.Conclusion: The costs of units performing cervical cancer screening test in Damavand Health Center were much more than this benefit and because of a none–positive Pap smear test in spite of high cost, performing this test in Damavand health centers was not cost effective.

۷Mental Health Status of Medical Students in Tehran: A Cross Sectional Study
اطلاعات انتشار: Social Determinants of Health، اول،شماره۲، ۲۰۱۵، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۸
Background: Mental health of medical students who will be responsible for community health has great importance. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of probable mental disorders during the internship period of medical students. Methods: This descriptive cross sectional study evaluated 404 medical students of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, in Tehran, the capital of Iran. The data collecting instrument was a self–rated questionnaire including standard mental health questionnaire SCL–90–R, demographic and socio–economic data. The score 0.7 and above were designated as possible cases of mental disorders. Analysis performed by SPSS software, version 14 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Il, USA). p–value0.05 was considered significant.Results: 53.8% of participants were female, and 79.4% were single. From all participants, 14.1% had Global Severity Index (GSI) score more than 0.7. Mean and standard deviation of GSI score was 0.32 (0.27). The frequency of probable mental disorder in medical students was 16.3% in somatization; 24.5% in obsessive–compulsive; 15.6% in interpersonal sensitivity; 16.8% in depression; 18.8% in anxiety; 14.6% in hostility; 11.4% in phobic anxiety; 16.8% in paranoid ideation and 13.9% in psychoticism. Students who had no children, lived in dormitory, had good economic status and were satisfied with their private life and studying course had significantly lower GSI scores.Conclusion: Between 11 to 24% of the students had mental disorders in different dimensions and economic status, living place and number of children were related to the disorders.

۸The association between blood pressure level and serum uric acid concentration in hemodialysis patients
نویسنده(ها): ، ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: Journal of nephropathology، چهارم،شماره۳، Jul ۲۰۱۵، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۶
Background: High blood pressure is a common condition in hemodialysis patients. Uric acid, which is high in these patients due to decreased clearance, had been shown to positively correlate with blood pressure in animal studies. Objectives: The goal of this investigation was to evaluate the impact of high uric acid level on blood pressure in these patients.Patients and Methods: Ninety–one patients, on three times weekly hemodialysis, were studied. Uric acid levels were measured just before and after hemodialysis along with blood pressures before, during and after each session. Data were analyzed by SPSS 15. A P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: 40 (44%) of patients had serum uric acid ≥6 mg\dl. Before dialysis 51 (61%) and 19 (21%) had high systolic blood and diastolic blood pressures respectively. Also, 50 (55%) were with wide pulse pressure and 63 (69%) had high mean arterial pressure (MAP). Additionally 62 (68%) developed inter–dialysis hypotension. After measuring odds ratio for hyperuricemia in each group, we observed low risk of hypruricemia in the group with high systolic pressure (OR = 0.352; 95% CI: 0.147–0.844; P = 0.01), the high MAP group (OR = 0.382; 95% CI: 0.153–0.955; P = 0.03) and wide pulse pressure group (OR = 0.416; 95% CI: 0.177–0.975; P = 0.04). There was no association between high uric acid level and diastolic pressure (P = 0.11) and inter–dialysis hypotension (P = 0.33). No relationship was found between serum uric acid and KT\V (P = 0.2), normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR) (P = 0.07) and body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.4). Conclusions: This study showed paradoxical association between high uric acid level and high systolic pressure, high MAP and wide pulse pressure and these effects were independent of dialysis duration, dialysis efficacy and nutrition, assuming that these relationships could be due to reverse epidemiology in dialysis patients.

۹Genetics and epidemiology of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome–Coronavirus (MERS–CoV)
اطلاعات انتشار: International Journal of Epidemiologic Research، دوم،شماره۴، ۲۰۱۵، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۵
Background: Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a viral respiratory illness caused by a coronavirus. After the primary onset of MERS in Saudi Arabia, in September 2015 cases began to increase. The number of laboratory–affirmed cases by MERS–CoV in the Middle East has been being increased recently. Method: In this current review article, by using the terms “MERS” and “coronavirus” we first searched for English language articles in the PubMed database, published in last five years. Then by a detailed review of related articles, we provided a comprehensive information about epidemiology, genetic, host and coronavirus treatment.Result: More importantly, evidences of human–to–human transmission in Europe and America indicate that the viral adaptations in humans may precede a large–scale epidemic. The genome of Coronaviruses is a linear positive–sense single stranded large RNA and they are enveloped viruses that have a helical symmetric nucleocapsid. Some new insights have been provided in previous few months in to the animal Coronavirus hosts, transmissibility, contagion of MERS Co–V and ideal laboratory diagnostic methods. Conclusion: It seems crucial to control this new human infection “MERS–CoV” by collaborating global and local health authorities and their continual support for further research on it.

۱۰Genetics and epidemiology of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome–Coronavirus (MERS–CoV)
اطلاعات انتشار: International Journal of Epidemiologic Research، دوم،شماره۴، ۲۰۱۵، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۵
Background: Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a viral respiratory illness caused by a coronavirus. After the primary onset of MERS in Saudi Arabia, in September 2015 cases began to increase. The number of laboratory–affirmed cases by MERS–CoV in the Middle East has been being increased recently. Method: In this current review article, by using the terms “MERS” and “coronavirus” we first searched for English language articles in the PubMed database, published in last five years. Then by a detailed review of related articles, we provided a comprehensive information about epidemiology, genetic, host and coronavirus treatment.Result: More importantly, evidences of human–to–human transmission in Europe and America indicate that the viral adaptations in humans may precede a large–scale epidemic. The genome of Coronaviruses is a linear positive–sense single stranded large RNA and they are enveloped viruses that have a helical symmetric nucleocapsid. Some new insights have been provided in previous few months in to the animal Coronavirus hosts, transmissibility, contagion of MERS Co–V and ideal laboratory diagnostic methods. Conclusion: It seems crucial to control this new human infection “MERS–CoV” by collaborating global and local health authorities and their continual support for further research on it.

۱۱A Mini Review of Serotonin and Its Receptors
اطلاعات انتشار: International Journal of Medical Reviews، اول،شماره۱، Winter ۲۰۱۴، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۷
Serotonin is one of the most important Neurotransmitter and made up of aminoacids. Including L–tryptophan, only the L–isomer is used in protein synthesis and can pass across the blood–brain. Serotonin concentration in organisms is among the lowest of all amino acids and it has relatively low tissue. In this paper a brief review has done pertaining to history of serotonin, and potential cognitive aspects including CNS and PNS modulation of serotonin. Major focus of paper is to review subtypes of serotonin receptors. It’s gathered up–to–date information about other pharmacologic agents such as agonist and antagonist of serotonin.

۱۲Reward System on Dopaminergic Pathway
اطلاعات انتشار: International Journal of Medical Reviews، دوم،شماره۳(پياپي ۷)، Summer ۲۰۱۵، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۴
Now a day some overused agents have influenced on cognitive neuroscience studies. Some of the brain structures that regulate and control our behaviors are from these aspects so one of these pathways has focused in this study. On the other hand human behavior such as perception, action, language, and emotion have more pay attention in cognitive neural science. In this review study data has gathered in a matrix that conformed by these aspects. It tries to find the frequency of current researches in any of these branches of the research matrix. Some of these researches locate in at least situation in frequency. Nucleus Accumbens (NA) and Hippocampus have discussed in this way. This study try to classify recent studies in reward system and then suggest the approach for following studies.

۱۳Neuroprotective Plants; What, How, And Why? A Narrative Review
اطلاعات انتشار: International Journal of Medical Reviews، سوم،شماره۱(پياپي ۹)، Winter ۲۰۱۶، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۵
As you know, neuroprotective plants are utilized in healthy custom by ancient people in all of the world. These products apply by many format such as drink, inhaler, pomade, and so on. Lavandula (ostokhodoos), Matricaria (Babouneh), Lemon balm (Badranjbouyeh), Hyoscyamus niger (Bang daneh), Orange blossom (Baharnarenj), Matricaria (Bidmeshk), and Matricaria (Tarangabin) are 7 of important neuroprotector agents that have the most usage in Iran. This serial study has focused on this 1st series of narrative review because of the natural neuroprotector agent’s use in so wide variety forms. Effective substance is real aim for their applications. The medicinal uses of neuroprotector plants are least exploited. These may provide more effective to aid in the control of many kind of health disorder and improve patient quality of life. The data was collected from different sources. So taking these into consideration, the current issue about neuroprotector plants, covering general aspects such as basic properties to help classify them. An overview of current search for natural specification. This survey on use belonging to what, where, when, how, and why that formed the ontology tool in this study for all different types of neuroprotector plants. The data showed that neuroprotector plants can be exploited for human healthy frontier value so many of these materials possess medicinal properties so can be utilized for curing many neurobiological problems as a complementary way. During this narrative about 49 of them would be produced in 7 papers in a series of time.

۱۴Antimicrobial Activity of Mandelic Acid Against Methicillin–Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a Novel Finding with Important Practical Implications
اطلاعات انتشار: World Applied Sciences Journal، سي و يكم،شماره۵، ۲۰۱۴، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۵
Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a major health concern worldwide especially in cutaneous diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activity of mandelic acid against Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Methods: In this study, the susceptibility of mandelic acid against two type strains and nineteen clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus was assessed in vitro. Results: Mandelic acid in different concentrations of 40, 80 and 160 mg\ml showed in vitro antibacterial activity against all tested clinical isolates of Methicillin–resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as well as the tested type strains in disk diffusion method with inhibitory zones of 11–20 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration (MIC\MBC) for methicillin–sensitive staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and MRSA type strains were 20\20 and 40\40 mg\ml respectively. For the nineteen clinical MRSA isolates, MIC50 and MIC90 were 20 and 40 (mg\ml) respectively and MBC50 and MBC90 were 20 and 80 (mg\ml) respectively. Conclusion: Our results suggest that mandelic acid has an antibacterial activity against MRSA and might be a useful addition to anti–MRSA armamentarium. Further investigations regarding the use of mandelic acid in a suitable moisturizer for atopic skin, to exert the dual effects of lubrication and MRSA eradication is recommended.

۱۵Sexual dysfunction in men seeking infertility treatment: The prevalence and associations
اطلاعات انتشار: Caspian Journal of Reproductive Medicine، اول،شماره۳، ۲۰۱۵، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۵
Introduction: Infertility is a major stressor in life and can cause disturbances in both sexual and marital relationships. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the frequency of sexual dysfunctions among infertile couples, who referred to the infertility center in Babol, Iran, and the identification of the factors associated with these problems.Method: A cross–sectional study was performed on 236 partners of infertile couples. A standard questionnaire named international classification DSM–IV was used to assess the frequency and the type of sexual dysfunction. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and adjusted odds ratios with their 95% CIs.Results: According to the results, around 58% of men were found to suffer from sexual dysfunction. The most prevalent type of sexual dysfunction was premature ejaculation, (34.7%), orgasm disorder (28.0%), desire sexual disorder (9.2%), delayed ejaculation (8.5%), retrograde ejaculation (6.8%) and erection dysfunction (5.5%). The men with a history of primary infertility had 3.61 fold risk of sexual dysfunction compared to women who had secondary infertility. Male Infertility (odds ratio, 3.61 95% CI, 2.13–4.58) and idiopathic were (odds ratio, 3.43 1.23–4.85) factors significantly associated with sexual dysfunction. There was 4.92 fold risk of sexual dysfunction observed in men whose wives had sexual dysfunction as compared with those whose wives had no sexual dysfunction.Conclusion: This study shows a high prevalence of sexual dysfunction for male partners of infertile couples in a community in Babol, Iran. It would be beneficial to establish a sexual clinic in infertility centers for the professional staff to monitor infertile couples.

۱۶In vitro Anti–adenovirus activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel extract
اطلاعات انتشار: Advanced Herbal Medicine، اول،شماره۴، ۲۰۱۵، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۸
Background and aims: Human adenoviruses can cause a diversity of clinical diseases, but there is no antiviral therapy formally approved by adenovirus infections. Thus, antiviral agents derived from medicinal plants which are effective against adenoviruses infections are urgently required. Therefore, this research was aimed to evaluate in vitro antiadenovirus activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel extract. Methods: In this research, crude ethanol extract of pomegranate peel was prepared. Anti–adenovirus activity of the extract was evaluated on Hela cell line using MTT (3–[4,5–dimethylthiazol–2–yl]–2,5–diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) and 50% Cytotoxicity Concentration (CC50) of the extract were determined using regression analysis. To determine antioxidant activity, total phenol content, and flavonoids content of the extract, the 2, 2–diphenyl–1–picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay; Folin–Ciocalteu method and aluminum chloride colorimetric method was used, respectively. Results: The CC50 and IC50 of the extract were 165±10.1 and 18.6±6.7µg\ml, respectively. The selectivity index (SI), the ratio of CC50 and IC50, was 8.89. The IC50 of DPPH radical was 7.7±1.21 μg\ml, compare with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), with IC50 of 25.41±1.89 μg\ml. The total phenol and Flavonoid contents were 282.9 mgGAE\g and 136.6mg\g, respectively. This study revealed that the pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Conclusion: peel extract exhibited Anti–adenovirus activity, with SI value of 8.9, suggesting its potential use as Anti–adenovirus agents. Also this extract with high phytoconstituents could be a promising source of medicinally important natural compound.

۱۷Determination of T–2 Mycotoxin Fusarium strains by HPLC with fluorescence detector
اطلاعات انتشار: Journal of Applied Biotechnology Reports، اول،شماره۱، Winter ۲۰۱۴، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۶
T–2 toxin is the most poisonous trichothecene produced by Fusarium species especiallyF.sporotrichioides. T–2 toxin is a biological contaminant in a number of agricultural commodities that can cause severe diseases among humans and animals and even lead to death. The aim of the current study is the analysis of T–2 mycotoxin in Fusarium species by high–performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with florescence detection and derivatization with 1–antroylnitrile (1–AN). Totally, 11Fusariumisolates and reference strains were studied. The isolates were tested for the T–2 toxin production after growing on rice substrate followed by using specific “Multisep 225 Trich Clean up columns” purification. In this study, T–2 toxin production was ranged from 197.05ug\kg to 8503.07ug\kg. This is the first study of T–2 toxin analysis by HPLC–F in Iran.

۱۸Bladder Volume Wall Index In Children With Urinary Tract Infections
اطلاعات انتشار: Journal of pediatric nephrology، اول،شماره۱، ۲۰۱۳، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۵
Introduction: Few studies have focused on the correlation between bladder ultrasound and urinary tract infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bladder volume wall index in children with single or recurrent urinary tract infection.Methods & Materials: This case–control study was conducted between March 2008 and December 2009. The study was performed on one hundred children (8 boys, 92 girls) aged 4–15 years with a history of urinary tract infection and thirty–nine (20 males, 19 females) age– matched healthy children who had negative urine culture one month before investigation. The kidneys, ureters, and bladder sonography were performed in all children. Bladder volume wall index was calculated for each child and the result of 70–130 was presumed normal. Student T–test, chi–square, likelihood ratio, and risk ratio were used. P–value 0.05 was considered significant.Results: The mean bladder volume was 262.5 (±82) in recurrent urinary tract infection, 235 (±54) in single urinary tract infection, and 278 (±80) in controls (P0.05). The bladder was thick (70) in 37 (28 cases, 9 controls) and thin (>130) in 38 children (28 cases, 10 controls) (P>0.05). The median residual volume was not different between the two groups. The abnormal BVWI in children with vesicoureteral (VU) reflux was 75% as compared to 51% in those without VU reflux (P>0.05). There was no correlation between BVWI and age, gender, groups, vesicoureteral reflux status, or residual volume (P>0.05).Conclusions: According to our findings, the bladder volume wall index is not sensitive enough to discriminate children who are prone to urinary tract infection.

۱۹Update on Acute Kidney Injury in Pediatrics– Part 1
اطلاعات انتشار: Journal of pediatric nephrology، دوم،شماره۲، ۲۰۱۴، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۷
Acute kidney injury was known that as an acute reversible insult to the kidney. The definition and classification had not been uniform. Earlier classification of acute renal failure to pre–renal, renal, and post renal using history, the time of response to fluid therapy, some blood and urinary parameters and markers to categorized. Recently, the effort is to make uniform definition, earliest recognition to decrease the rate of morbidity, mortality, length of stay in hospital , and even death. However, it is clear that serum creatinin is a late marker of renal injury and many new investigations try to find more sensitive biomarkers to recognize the earliest stage of AKI, exact underlying mechanism, and the outcome. Here we provide the first section of a series about new concepts on AKI with focus on pediatrics.

۲۰Subsidy Reform, Cash Payments, and Welfare of Iranian Households
نویسنده(ها): ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: Iranian Economic Review، بيستم،شماره۴۲، ۲۰۱۶، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۱۹
This study reviews the direct and indirect effects of higher energy and bread prices (due to removing their subsidies and paying their equivalent in cash instead). Therefore, all consumer goods were classified into 6 groups and a linear expenditure system was estimated based on households’ budget data of 2009 and 2011 for urban and rural areas separately. The results indicate that high–income households have lost more welfare than the low–income households; in other words, the cash subsidies for low–income households are more adequate to compensate for higher costs of living but severely inadequate for high–income households. These cash subsidies are very important for low income families.

۲۱Scientific Profiles in the field of Biomarkers (2000–2010)
اطلاعات انتشار: International Journal Of Information Science And Management، يازدهم،شماره۲، ۲۰۱۳، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۱۰
Biological marker is a term used in many scientific fields and was introduced as a measurable element or a clinical indicator in the abnormal biological processes, pathological condition, or pharmacological intervention. Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI–E) from database of Web of Science (WoS) was used to extract all publication indexed as a topic of “Biomarkers” during a period of eleven years through 2000–2010. Extracting of data was restricted to the tag of topics (TS = Biomarkers) from advanced search menu. A total number of 37397 records were extracted on 5 May 2013 and went under analysis. In this study the papers originated jointly by multiple authors from different countries were defined as ones for each country. The study showed that the number of publication in the field of biomarkers showed an increase through the period of study. The number of publication in 2010 was greater than 10 times in 2000. More than 98% of publication was in English. The majority of publication (68%) was in the form journal article. Harvard University, sharing 1,128 papers in the field, was the most prolific university among institutes. The USA contributing 33% of world’s profile in the field was the most productive country. Based on the Bradford’s scattering law, the journal of “Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers Prevention” publishing 3.12% of world’s publication was the most prolific journal among core journals. Analysis of data concluded that oncology was the most interesting subject area of scientists in the field of Biomarkers through the last decade.

۲۲Hardiness, defense Mechanisms, negative self–portrayal scale in applicants and non–applicants of cosmetic surgery
اطلاعات انتشار: International Journal of Behavioral Sciences، دهم،شماره۱، Winter ۲۰۱۶، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۶
Introduction: Today the psychological factor is one of the controversial subjects in tendency to cosmetic surgery. This study has aimed to compare the hardiness, defense mechanisms and negative self–image among cosmetic surgery applicants with non–applicants. Method: This causal–comparative study was carried out in Tehran, Iran from April to June 2015. The samples of this study included 60 applicants and non– applicants of cosmetic surgery which were referred to private clinics for cosmetic surgery in regions one and two in Tehran and were selected by convenience sampling. The study tools included defense mechanisms questionnaires and psychological hardiness questionnaires, negative self–portrayal scale questionnaire and a demographic questionnaire. Data was analyzed by analysis of variance and multivariate tests. Results: The results of the multivariate analysis of the variance test indicated a significant difference between the applicant and the non–applicant of cosmetic surgery in hardiness aspects (control and commitment), defensive styles (matured, immature and neurotic), and negative self–portrayal scale (anxiety signs and physical appearance). Conclusion: Due to the differences between the hardiness, defense mechanisms and negative self–portrayal among applicants and non–applicants of cosmetic surgery, it is important to pay much attention to psychological structures before doing cosmetic surgery.

۲۳Design and in vitro evaluation of a novel controlled onset extended–release delivery system of metoprolol tartrate
نویسنده(ها): ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences، يازدهم،شماره۱(پياپي ۳۴)، ۲۰۱۶، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۱۲
Blood pressure rises rapidly upon awakening and maybe responsible, in part, for the increased incidence of myocardial infarction and stroke during the morning hours. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to develop a novel chronotherapeutic formulation of metoprolol tartrate (MT) for night time dosing providing maximum effect in the morning hours. Core tablets contained MT, sodium chloride, lactose, Avicel® and starch. Powders were mixed, sieved and directly compressed in to tablets using a single punch tablet machine. Core tablets were then coated with 5 or 10% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose as swelling layer and subsequently outer membrane with the mixture of various ratios of Eudragit® RS to RL at different coating levels 5, 10, 15% as semi–permeable water insoluble outer coat by conventional pan–spray method. The best formulation with regard to release behavior was chosen and subjected to further release studies in various rotational speed and pHs. Both lag time and release rate were dependent on the coating levels and the osmotic pressure of dissolution medium. A linear relationship between lag time and outer coating levels was observed. The lag time was prolonged with an increase in the coating levels. Both diffusion and osmotic pumping effect were involved in drug release from the device. Significant increases in drug release behavior was not observed using dissolution medium with various pH and different agitation rates. It was found that the release rate was independent of pH, rotational speed and gastric motility and may not be altered due to changes of pH and peristaltic movement along the GI tract.

۲۴Preparation of Poly–N–Methylpyrrole – Coated Platinum Modified Electrode in Chloroform in the Presence of Various Supporting Electrolytes and Its Use for the Catalytic Oxidation of Ascorbic Acid and Hydroquinone
نویسنده(ها): ، ، ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (IJCCE)، بيست و يکم،شماره۲(پياپي ۲۸)، ۲۰۰۲، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۷

۲۵Effect of Metal Salt Coagulants on Treatment of Activated Sludge Effluent in Sulfite Mill Pulp and Paper Plant
نویسنده(ها): ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (IJCCE)، بيست و يکم،شماره۲(پياپي ۲۸)، ۲۰۰۲، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۸
نمایش نتایج ۱ تا ۲۵ از میان ۴۷ نتیجه