توجه: محتویات این صفحه به صورت خودکار پردازش شده و مقاله‌های نویسندگانی با تشابه اسمی، همگی در بخش یکسان نمایش داده می‌شوند.
۱Comparison of sludge microbiological characteristics in Tehran Wastewater Treatment Plants
اطلاعات انتشار: پنجمین کنگره بین المللی مهندسی شیمی، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۷
Application of sewage sludge to agricultural lands is increasing but the use of such sludge may cause outbreaks of disease due to the transmission of these organisms through the food chain. For these reasons, there is a need to control the levels of pathogens in sludge and its application to agricultural land. The aim of this study is to compare the important microbiological characteristics of dried sludge in three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) including Sharhrak–e–Gharb, Shoosh and Mahallati. Samples were collected during three seasons (fall, winter and spring (2006–07)) from drying beds of the WWTPs and Parasite eggs; FC and TC of samples were examined using standard methods. The results showed that the average amounts of FC for sludge of Shahrak–e–Gharb , Shoosh and Mahallati WWTPs were found to be 4.9 × 10 3 , 3.7 × 10 3 and 1.21 × 10 4 MPN\g.DS 4 , respectively. According to the obtained data, the sludge of all these wastewater treatment plants is classified into Class B of USEPA 40 CFR Part 503 regulations. Therefore, direct human exposure of the sludge would still pose a significant health risk and its application should be restricted.<\div>

۲Government vs. Governance in Natural Disasters
نویسنده(ها): ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: نهمین کنگره بین المللی مهندسی عمران، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۶
Government is an institutional super structure that society uses to translate politics into policies and legislation. Governance is the outcome of the interaction of government, the private sector and civil society throughout the political process, policy development, and program design and service delivery. Natural disasters are catastrophic events that occur all over the world almost every day. They destroy cities, kill people and make lots of economical, social and environmental damages. Governments andgovernances have a lot of impacts on pre– and post–disaster activities. But their roles are different in many extents. In this study we compare roles of government and governance in natural disasters. Research is based on comparative studies of governance in natural disasters in few countries including Iran. The results present the differences among countries..<\div>

۳Environmental characterization of stabilized\solidified petrochemincinerator bottom ash with cement, silica fume and Nano–silica
اطلاعات انتشار: نهمین کنگره بین المللی مهندسی عمران، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۸
Incineration followed by stabilization\solidification is identified as the demonstrated available treatment technology in the USA, according to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. In the present study (S\S) technology was applied on petrochemical incinerator bottom ash (PI–BA) using Portland cement (II 45) and two types of pozzolanic materials: silica fume and Nano–SiO2. The leaching behavior of the cement–based products was studied using standard environmental tests, TCLP and NEN 7375 effectiveness of treatmrnt was evaluated in terms of reducing the heavy metal leachability to the levels below the European and USEPA landfilling criteria. An optimum composition for the PI–BA stabilization was formulated as 45%Bottom ash+10% silica fume to achieve the environmental and economic criteria The results show that the stabilization process can be considered as an appropriate and cost effective alternative to hazardous waste landfill.Furthermore, solidified products have a potential to be reused as construction materials in different applications<\div>

۴Comparative Study of Conventional Ceilings in Iran from Environmental, Economical and Social Points of View
نویسنده(ها): ، ،
اطلاعات انتشار: نهمین کنگره بین المللی مهندسی عمران، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۶
Building construction is a growing industry in our country, Iran, and due to its environmental impacts it requires more accurate and careful policies. In this article, ceiling as an essential element of the building, has been studied from the environmental, economical and social perspectives. Environmental issues cover items such as global warming, acidification, fossil fuel depletion, etc. Acceptance of a ceiling, technically and the approval of engineers and contractors have been investigated as social issues. On the other hand we have studied the economical issues that have determining role in confirming a system. To achieve this purpose, we have chosen life cycle assessment (LCA) approach and the ceilings have been modeled in BEES (Building for Environmental and Economical Sustainability) software. This program can analyze the ceilings environmental and economical points of view simultaneously. A special questionnaire was prepared for asking the experts about technical and constructional aspects of the proposed ceilings. The results of these two different approaches were analyzed and finally it was found that some of the modern ceilings reduce the environmental burdens, and at the same time their construction are more simple, therefore this is worth paying attention in future policies for building industry.<\div>

۵Incorporation of probabilistic health risk assessment of heavy metals into biosolids land application guidelines
اطلاعات انتشار: هشتمین کنگره ملی مهندسی عمران، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۹
The objective of this paper was to assess the health risk for the ingestion of vegetable and rice grown on farm lands fertilized by waste activated sludge. Three heavy metals Cadmium, Copper and Zinc were chosen. After estimating the concentration of heavy metals in soil, their concentration in plants was calculated using regression uptake models. The Monte–Carlo simulation was then used to perform a probabilistic health risk assessment. The results showed that rice ingestion has more contribution to hazard index (HI) when low amount of fertilizer applied on land. It was also found that Cadmium has the most contribution to HI. The findings of this study revealed that for one–time consumption of fertilizer, the 95th percentile of HI is less than 1 even at 100 t\ha consumption rate. However, when long–term application of fertilizer was considered, only at 5 t\ha consumption rate, the HI value was less than 1.<\div>
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