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۱Heavy Metals Accumulation and Enzymatic Biomarker in Commercially Important Fish Species (Hemichromis fasciatus and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) at the Landing Site, Bariga, Lagos Lagoon
اطلاعات انتشار: World Applied Sciences Journal، بيست و نهم،شماره۲، ۲۰۱۴، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۹
Pollution of the aquatic environment is a serious and growing problem. Increasing number and amount of industrial, agricultural and commercial chemicals discharged into the aquatic environment have led to various deleterious effects on the aquatic organisms Aquatic pollution is a major contributor to oxidative stress in fish resulting from the redox cycling of pollution.Heavy metals level of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd),iron (Fe), mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) were determined in two commercially important fishes (Hemichromis fasciatus and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) from the Bariga landing site, using Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer. Physicochemical parameters were investigated by determining the level of dissolve oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD), pH, temperature among others for the water samples. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), Glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were alsodetermined. Heavy metals were accumulated in the flesh of the fishes to varying extent. The trend of accumulation of the metals in each fish is as follows: Hemichromis fasciatus–Zn>Fe>Cu>Cr>Pb. Hg and Cd were not detected; Chrysichtys nigrodigitatus–Zn>Cu>Fe>Cr>Pb.Hg and Cd were not detected. SOD activities in the liver of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus, with the highest concentration of 69.73% and SOD activities in the gill of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus, with highest value of 45.83%.SOD activities in liver of Hemichromis fasciatus, with highest concentration of 29.21%.SOD activity in gill of Hemichromis fasciatus, with highest concentration of 53.77%.MDA concentration in liver of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus, with highest concentration of 43.7%.while in it gill, the highest concentration of 36.82%. Concentration of MDA in liver of Hemichromis fasciatus, with highest concentration of 29.21%. Likewise MDA, in gill with highest concentrationof 37.91%.Furthermore, GSH concentration in the liver of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus with highest concentration of 0.54%. Also in it gills, with the highest concentration of 0.33%. In the liver of Hemichromis fasciatus, GSH has concentration of 0.54%. Similarly In gill having highest concentration recorded 0.35%. The result demonstrates that alteration in the antioxidant enzymes and induction of lipid peroxidation reflects the presence of heavy metals which may cause oxidative stress in Hemichromis fasciatus and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus from the Lagos Bariga landing site of the Lagos Lagoon. The study therefore, provides a rational use of biomarkers of oxidative stress in biomonitoring of aquatic pollution.

۲The Impact of Heavy Metals on Haematological Parameters and Enzymatic Activies in Chrysichthys Nigrodigitatus and Pythonichthys Macrurus
نویسنده(ها): ،
اطلاعات انتشار: World Applied Sciences Journal، سي و يكم،شماره۵، ۲۰۱۴، سال
تعداد صفحات: ۷
Human activities have led to the accumulation of toxic metals in the aquatic environment. Heavy metals are serious pollutant in the aquatic environment because of their environmental persistence and ability to be accumulated and cause deleterious impact on aquatic organism. This study was carried out to investigated the levels of some selected heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn) in two fish species: Chrysicthys nigrodigitatus and Pythonichthys macrurus obtained from Makoko area of the Lagos lagoon between the months of July–September, 2012 and also to determined the effects of these metals on haematological parameters and enzymes activity of the fish species. The mean concentration of heavy metals in mg\l obtained for C. nigrodigitatus were Cd (ND), Cr (0.010±0.001), Cu (0.036±0.022), Fe (0.580±0.137), Pb (0.001±0.001), Zn (0.218±0.346) and P. macrurus; Cd (0.001±0.002), Cr (0.005±0.005),Cu 0.046±0.066), Fe (0.359±0.270), Pb (ND), Zn (0.228±0.376) were below the standards of WHO\FAO\FEPA permissible limit. The mean level of the enzymes recorded in (IU\L) for C. nigrodigitatus were Aspartate aminotransferase AST (71.95 ± 26.76), Alanine Aminotransaminase ALT (22.367±12.83), Alkaline phosphatase ALP (164.61 ± 26.65) and for P. macrurus were AST (115.82±41.04), ALT (37.79± 25.16) and ALP (59.80±21.99) respectively. Statistical significance difference (P 0.05) occurred in serum ALP between the two fish species. There was no statistically significant difference (P>0.05) recorded in all haematological parameters, the values revealed a high Haemoglobin and PCV concentration for both fishes. Results for C. nigrodigitatus were Hb (12.34 ± 2.15g\dl), PCV (37.00±6.45%), RBC (3.57± 0.9210 mm ), WBC (136.20±59.0610 mm ), MCV (108.06±28.46FL), MCH (6 3 4 3 35.99 ±9.45Pg),MCHC (33.32 ± 0.03g\l), Neutrophils (35.33±8.76%), Lymphocytes (64.67±8.76 %) and P.macrurus values were Hb (13.84 ±2.65g\dl), PCV (41.50± 7.94%) RBC (4.18±1.04 106mm 3), WBC (115.87 ± 28.04 10 mm 3), MCV (101.37± 16.92FL), MCH (33.86±5.62Pg), MCHC (38.87±13.59 g\l), Neutrophils (39.00± 13.87%) and Lymphocytes 60.67±13.60 (%). Deductions from this study revealed an alteration in the haematological parameters and enzymes activity of C. nigrodigitatus and P.macrurus. The result indicated that the concentrations of these heavy metals fall within their respective acceptable permissible limits recommended by the WHO\FAO\FEPA. Hence the consumption of these fish species may not pose any threat to human health. However periodic monitoring of these metals in the fish and water is highly essential to public health due to bioaccumulation.
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